Light microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen containing 2

Light microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen containing 24 glomeruli revealed no evidence of global sclerosis. Glomeruli showed collapse, but immune complex deposits were not seen. There was diffuse atrophy with tubular epithelial flattening and vacuolation (cyst formation) with interstitial fibrosis (Fig. 2A), and hypertrophy Trametinib in vitro of the juxtaglomerular apparatus was apparent (Fig. 2B).

Cancellous bone showed a marked decrease and was replaced by adipose tissue (Fig. 3A). There was also a reduction of cortical bone due to excessive porosity related to resorption at both the periosteal surface and the endosteal surface (Fig. 3B). Numerous osteoclasts were seen along the active resorption surfaces. The cancellous bone showed island formation due to a marked decrease of trabecular connections (Fig. 3C). Only cancellous bone adjacent to the cortical bone showed GSK1349572 mineralization between the first and second labelings, while no mineralization was seen between the second labeling and osteoid formation during the 28 days before biopsy (Fig. 3D). Empty lacunae that lacked osteocytes were noted prominently and diffusely in the cancellous bone and cortical bone, and bone area of lacunae filled with osteocytes was not localized [9] (Fig. 3E). Even in the cancellous bone adjacent to cortical bone (Table 1), the total bone volume (BV/TV) was reduced to 13.4% (normal:

18.8 to 27.6%) and the trabecular thickness was reduced to 85 μm (normal: 111 to 155 μm). The osteoid volume (OV/BV) was 3.51% (normal: 0.55 to 2.40%) and the osteoid thickness was 7.46 μm (normal: 8.3 to 12.4 μm), which did not fit the criteria for diagnosis of osteomalacia (OV/BV > 5% and osteoid thickness > 15 μm) [10]. Acid–base balance of our patient showed moderate chronic metabolic

acidosis with respiratory and metabolic compensations because of hyperventilation (hypocapnea), hypovolemia-related renin aldosterone system activation, and yet presented mild acidemia with low HCO3 levels. Active bone resorption might have been one of such compensations. Aurora Kinase Metabolic alkalosis related to use of diuretics or laxative abuse was not apparent. Severe chronic hypovolemia related to an absolute intake deficit of potassium and salt was apparent on admission. Because emaciation was considered to have contributed to her osteoporosis and renal dysfunction, promotion of calorie intake was tried in addition to administration of potassium derivatives. After two years, potassium derivative therapy was stopped because of normokalemia. After 5 years, her weight rose to 37 kg with a BMI of 15.0 kg/m2, although she remained nonmenstrual. The BMD of the lumbar spine increased to a T-score of 0.2 SD for the lateral view and − 2.3 SD for the anterior–posterior view, while BMD at the femoral neck increased to a T-score of − 2.3 SD. Serum albumin was 4.

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