10). Of the 404 sequence of dams, 73% are closer than 100 km to each other. Results show that the 512 km
between the Garrison and Oahe Dam is not enough distance to consider these dams separately. We propose a conceptual model of how a sequence of interacting dams might impact river geomorphology (Fig. 11) based on our results. We call this morphologic sequence the Inter-Dam Sequence, and we present a simplified model based on the Upper Missouri River that could be easily adapted to other river reaches. Although the morphologic sequence is a useful conceptualization, there are clear limitations to these results. www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1120212-jtp-74057.html This model is likely only applies to large PCI-32765 clinical trial dams on alluvial rivers. Dams on rivers that are controlled by bedrock or where morphologic adjustment is limited by vegetation or cohesive banks may respond completely different than the model presented here. Similarly, the downstream effects of small dams will likely attenuate
over much shorter distances. However, this framework is a helpful advancement in our understanding of longitudinal responses to multiple dams. One of the greatest influences that humans have had on the fluvial landscape is the construction of dams. Despite significant advancements in the study of the downstream and upstream impacts of dams, they are often considered separately from each other. The Garrison and Oahe Dama on the Missouri River are used to demonstrate RAS p21 protein activator 1 that the effects of an upstream dam maintains significant geomorphic control over river morphology as the backwater effects of downstream reservoir begin to occur. The upstream–downstream interaction of multiple dams overlap to create a distinct morphologic sequence.
Five unique geomorphic gradational reaches were identified for the Garrison Reach, two of which are controlled solely by the upstream dam and three of which are controlled by the dam interaction termed: Dam Proximal, Dam-Attenuating, River-Dominated Interaction, Reservoir-Dominated Interaction, and Reservoir. A conceptual model was developed of a morphologic sequence of downstream dam impacts and dam interaction which can be adapted to other rivers. The current distribution of dams on the major rivers in the U.S. indicates that more than 80% of large rivers may have interacting between their dams. Given this widespread occurrence, we describe a generalized morphologic sequence termed the Inter-Dam Sequence and suggest it should be the focus of additional research. We would like to acknowledge project funding from the following sources: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, ND State Water Commission, ND Department of Transportation, ND Game and Fish Department, ND Department of Health, City of Bismark, City of Mandan, Burleigh County WRB, Morton County WRB, and Lower Hart WRB.