SummaryThese strategies could increase the possibility to develop

SummaryThese strategies could increase the possibility to develop successful drugs against the fibrotic manifestations Belnacasan inhibitor of SSc.”
“High-flux coherent x rays are necessary for the improvement of the spatial resolution in coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM). In this study, high-resolution

CXDM using Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors is proposed, and the mirrors are designed for experiments of the transmission scheme at SPring-8. Both the photon density and spatial coherence of synchrotron x rays focused by the KB mirrors are investigated by wave optical simulation. The KB mirrors can produce nearly diffraction-limited two-dimensional focusing x rays of similar to 1 mu m in size at 8 keV. When the sample size is less than similar to 1 mu m, the sample can be illuminated with full coherent x rays by adjusting the cross-slit size set between the source and the mirrors. From the estimated photon density at the sample position, the feasibility of CXDM with a sub-1-nm spatial resolution is suggested. The present ultraprecise figuring process enables us to fabricate mirrors for carrying out high-resolution CXDM experiments.”
“Background: Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the most frequently encountered cardiovascular conditions that can seriously affect the patient’s prognosis. However,

the importance of early triage and treatment initiation in the setting of AHF has AZD9291 not been recognized.

Methods and Results: The Tokyo Cardiac Care Unit Network Database prospectively collected information of emergency admissions to acute cardiac care facilities in 2005-2007 from 67 participating hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area. We

analyzed records of 1,218 AHF patients transported to medical centers via emergency medical services (EMS). AHF was defined as rapid onset or change check details in the signs and symptoms of heart failure, resulting in the need for urgent therapy. Patients with acute coronary syndrome were excluded from this analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. A majority of the patients were elderly (76.1 +/- 11.5 years old) and male (54.1%). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 6.0%. The median time interval between symptom onset and EMS arrival (response time) was 64 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 26-205 minutes), and that between EMS arrival and ER arrival (transportation time) was 27 minutes (IQR 9-78 minutes). The risk-adjusted mortality increased with transportation time, but did not correlate with the response time. Those who took >45 minutes to arrive at the medical centers were at a higher risk for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 2.

Incidence is becoming extensive enough to warrant an updated inve

Incidence is becoming extensive enough to warrant an updated investigation of the clinical characteristics of GP. The authors retrospectively reviewed 116 cases of GP in Guangzhou, China, and analyzed its incidence and clinical appearance, as well as the characteristics of EEG, neuroradiology, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid examinations.

Of the 116 GP patients, clinical symptoms presented frequently on admission were a variety of psychiatric-behavioral symptoms and varying degrees of dementia. Positive sucking reflex was the most common sign, as well as hyperreflexia and Argyll-Robertson pupil. EEG data mainly showed slightly abnormal EEG activity, with increased delta waves. Focal atrophy selleck products in one or multiple cerebral regions was evident on neuroimage. The prevalence of GP extends to various social strata or classes, with clinical presentation varying considerably among patients. For patients with progressive cognitive selleck screening library and behavioral deterioration, accompanied with psychotic and/or affective behavioral disorders or cerebral atrophy of unknown cause, general paresis should be considered. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:300-307)”
“Objective: To describe and compare the characteristics of children hospitalized with novel influenza A (H1N1) during two successive waves.

Methods: This was a medical chart review of all children hospitalized in a French Canadian

pediatric hospital in Montreal in the spring and fall of 2009 with a positive real-time polymerase

chain reaction for novel influenza A (H1N1) and flu-like symptoms.

Results: We included 202 children with a median age of 4.9 (range 0.1-18) years. Demographic and clinical features of the children in the two waves were similar. One or more underlying medical conditions were found in 59% of the children. Clinical findings at admission were: fever (98%), cough (88%), congestion/rhinorrhea (58%), gastrointestinal symptoms (47%), oxygen saturation below 95% (33%), sore throat (20%), and neurological symptoms (9%). Admission to the intensive care unit was required for 22 (11%) children, and 14 patients needed respiratory support. During the second wave, the median duration of stay was shorter (3 vs. 4 days, p = 0.003) and oseltamivir was used more often (84% vs. 40%, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: find more Children hospitalized during the two successive waves of H1N1 were mainly school-aged and suffered from moderate disease. Although clinical features and severity of disease were similar, oseltamivir was prescribed more frequently and the length of hospital stay was shorter in the second wave. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The hydrophobic cell wall polymer lignin is deposited in specialized cells to make them impermeable to water and prevent cell collapse as negative pressure or gravitational force is exerted.

This study aims to measure the expression of soluble ST2 (sST2) a

This study aims to measure the expression of soluble ST2 (sST2) and IL-33

in asthmatic children, depending on disease activity. Methods: Thirty-seven children with well-defined asthma (20 moderate and 17 mild asthmatics) were studied. IL-33 and sST2 were measured by ELISA in serum and induced sputum (IS) samples, and compared with 22 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to determine IL-33 and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in IS. Results: sST2 and IL-33 levels in IS and serum were significantly higher in patients compared with healthy controls (p = 0.0001). The increase in sST2 and IL33 was significantly more important Cyclopamine molecular weight in moderate cases than in mild asthma. A significant correlation was observed between serum and IS IL-33 levels (r = 0.497; p = 0.0018). Higher levels of IL-33 mRNA were detected in IS from asthmatics than those

observed in controls. A significant correlation was found between TNF-alpha 7-Cl-O-Nec1 ic50 and IL-33 mRNA expression in the asthmatic subjects (r = 0.772, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Values of sST2 and IL-33 observed in IS were found to correlate with disease activity. Elevated IL-33 mRNA expression in IS and its correlation with TNF-alpha reflected the inflammatory process observed in the lung of young asthmatics.”
“Turner Syndrome occurs in one out of every 5000 live female births and the diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. In the last 9 years, 17 of 1681 patients who underwent cytogenetic evaluation to investigate uncertain chromosomal anomaly had Turner syndrome. Ten of the patients were the 45,X

(classic) type, 2 patients were 46,X,i(Xq), Epacadostat order 1 patient was 46,X,der(X)del(X)(p22.1)del(X)(q26), and 4 were mosaic (2 were 45,X/46,XY and the other 2 were 45,X/47,XXX). Detailed clinical evaluations of these patients are presented.”
“Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline. Epidemiological studies suggest that the risk of AD is higher in women even when data are adjusted for age. Objective: We set out to compare changes in 9-month-old male and female mice which overexpress amyloid precursor protein (APP) with presenilin (PS1; APP/PS1 mice) and to evaluate whether any changes were coupled with deficits in spatial learning. Methods: APP/PS1 mice were assessed for their ability to learn in the Morris water maze and A beta burden assessed by Congo Red and A beta triple ultrasensitive assay. Neuroinflammatory changes were examined in brain tissue along with expression of A beta-generating and A beta-degrading enzymes. Results: A deficit in reversal phase learning in the Morris water maze was observed in female mice and was paralleled by evidence of increased accumulation of A beta, microglial activation and expression of IL-1 beta. Accumulation of A beta was coupled with an increase in expression of BACE-1 and a decrease in insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE).

These findings suggest that Akt blocks the anti-growth signal of

These findings suggest that Akt blocks the anti-growth signal of LKB1 by triggering a phosphorylation-dependent nuclear sequestration selleck kinase inhibitor of LKB1 through 14-3-3 proteins.”
“Objective: To study the time needed to obtain a reliable, functioning pulse oximeter signal during the resuscitation of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of data from the resuscitation of preterm, VLBW infants at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center. Resuscitation teams consisted of a neonatal physician, a nurse, and respiratory therapist. Pulse oximetry was routinely used in all preterm deliveries. During resuscitation, the respiratory

therapist attempted to place a pulse oximeter probe on the right hand or wrist immediately after birth. The BioPAC MP-150 Data Acquisition System was used to record analog data during

the resuscitation, including the SpO(2) value. 8-Bromo-cAMP nmr From the analog tracing, the time at which a reliable pulse oximetry signal was obtained was determined.

Results: 50 VLBW (<= 1500 g) preterm patients were studied. Mean gestational age was 27 + 4 weeks (range: 23-35 weeks). Mean birth weight was 920 +/- 287 g (range: 360-1445 g). Mean time to achieve functioning pulse oximetry was 79 +/- 42 s (range: 40-240 s). The median time was 67 s (interquartile range: 50-93 s). 86% of infants had a reliable SpO(2) value obtained prior to 120 s of life.

Conclusions: Our data show that an experienced respiratory therapist can apply a pulse oximeter and achieve reliable SpO(2) values for the majority VLBW infants by 120 s of life as recommended by current NRP guidelines. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“The lysophospholipid mediator family is attracting increased attention for its role in the maintenance of human health Nirogacestat chemical structure and the prevention and treatment of human chronic diseases. This review focuses on recent findings about lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its potential precursor phospholipids present in the apical lumen of mammalian lower digestive tracts. In particular, information on the protective effect of LPA toward rat gastric mucosa allowed us to better understand the mechanisms of the gastric ulcer-protective effect of a Chinese medicine and the beneficial effects of intake of vegetables and/or soybean lecithin in foods. These findings may indicate that LPA-rich foodstuffs promote human health by regulating the integral and functional homeostasis of the gastrointestinal mucosa, although the safety of LPA supplementation should be intensively investigated further.”
“Purpose: To formulate sustained release gastroretentive microballoons of metformin hydrochloride with the objective of improving its bioavailability.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Hyperhidrosis is a common and under-recognized disease in the pediatric population that has a significant impact on quality of life. Focal and generalized forms of hyperhidrosis exist, which can be idiopathic or secondary to underlying medical conditions or medications. Treatment is tailored to the specific

patient needs, characteristics and goals. These include topical preparations, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin and anticholinergic medications.”
“The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), acupuncture and herbal medicine for chronic non-specific LBP. A comprehensive search was conducted by an experienced librarian from the Cochrane Back Review Group (CBRG) in multiple databases up to December 22, 2008. Randomised controlled trials AZ 628 molecular weight (RCTs) of adults with chronic non-specific LBP, which evaluated at least one clinically relevant, patient-centred outcome measure were included. Two authors working independently from one another assessed CAL 101 the risk of bias using the criteria recommended

by the CBRG and extracted the data. The data were pooled when clinically homogeneous and statistically possible or were otherwise qualitatively described. GRADE was used to determine the quality of the evidence. In total, 35 RCTs (8 SMT, 20 acupuncture, 7 herbal medicine), which examined 8,298 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these

(2 SMT, 8 acupuncture, 7 herbal medicine) were thought to have a low risk of bias. In general, the pooled effects for the studied interventions demonstrated short-term relief or improvement only. The lack of studies with a low-risk of bias, especially in regard to SMT precludes any strong conclusions; however, the principal findings, which are based upon low- to very-low-quality evidence, suggest that SMT does not provide a more clinically beneficial PU-H71 order effect compared with sham, passive modalities or any other intervention for treatment of chronic low-back pain. There is evidence, however, that acupuncture provides a short-term clinically relevant effect when compared with a waiting list control or when acupuncture is added to another intervention. Although there are some good results for individual herbal medicines in short-term individual trials, the lack of homogeneity across studies did not allow for a pooled estimate of the effect. In general, these results are in agreement with other recent systematic reviews on SMT, but in contrast with others. These results are also in agreement with recent reviews on acupuncture and herbal medicine. Randomized trials with a low risk of bias and adequate sample sizes are direly needed.”
“Underweight and malnutrition are well documented in Parkinson’s disease (PD), while overweight has been less reported.

Results-27 of 47 invited experts participated in the Delphi surve

Results-27 of 47 invited experts participated in the Delphi survey. Survey consensus was that, although several

toxic agents would effectively cause acute death in a large number of animals, all of them had substantial animal welfare concerns. Pentobarbital sodium administered IV was considered the most effective pharmacological agent for euthanasia, and xylazine was considered the most effective sedative. Animal welfare concerns following administration of a euthanasia solution IV or a penetrating captive bolt were minimal; however, both veterinarians and feedlot managers felt that use of a captive Ipatasertib cost bolt would be inefficient for depopulation. Veterinarians were extremely concerned about public perception, human safety, and timely depopulation of a large feedlot during an FMD outbreak.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Depopulation of a large feedlot during an FMD outbreak would be difficult to complete in a humane and timely fashion.”
“The pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is complex, Milciclib price and current knowledge of I/R injury in humans is incomplete. In the present study, human living-donor kidney transplantation was used as a highly reproducible model to systematically study various processes potentially involved in early I/R injury. Unique, direct measurements of arteriovenous concentration differences over the kidney revealed massive release

of interleukin (IL)-6 in the first 30 minutes of graft reperfusion and a modest release of IL-8. Among the assessed markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, only 15(S)-8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) was released. When assessing cell activation, release of prothrombin selleck inhibitor factor 1 + 2 indicated thrombocyte activation, whereas there was no release of markers for endothelial activation or neutrophil activation. Common complement activation complex sC5b-9 was not released into the bloodstream, but was released into urine rapidly after reperfusion. To investigate whether IL-6 plays a modulating role in I/R injury, a mouse experiment of renal I/R injury was performed.

Neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody treatment considerably worsened kidney function. In conclusion, this study shows that renal I/R in humans is dominated by local IL-6 release. Neutralization of IL-6 in mice resulted in a significant aggravation of renal I/R injury.”
“Objectives: As no single HIV prevention program has eliminated HIV transmission, there is growing interest in the effectiveness of “”combined”" prevention programming. To compare HIV infection among persons injecting in the initial programs environment (IPE) in New York City (self-initiated risk reduction, methadone, education/outreach, and HIV testing) to HIV infection among persons injecting in a combined programs environment (CPE) (above programs plus large-scale syringe exchange).

“Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an inde

“Background. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for morbidity/mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Our study aimed to identify prevalence as well as independent risk factors that contribute to the development of LV geometric remodeling in our HD patients. Methods. The left ventricles of 116 HD patients were classified echocardiographically into four different geometric patterns on the basis of LV mass and relative wall thickness. Furthermore, we

measured inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and its collapsibility index (CI) by echocardiography. Finally, we modeled a stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine the predictors of LV geometry. Results. Our study provides evidence that HD patients had a prevalence of abnormal LV geometry in 92% and LVH in 81%. We found all four geometric models of LV. Most dominant were eccentric

LVH. Concentric LVH was observed in 37, normal geometry (NG) in 9, and concentric remodeling (CR) in 13 of HD patients. Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in the cL VII group (95 +/- 10 mmHg) than in the NG and CR groups (81.6 +/- 12.3 and 80 +/- 11.8, 4-Hydroxytamoxifen inhibitor respectively, p < 0.001). The cL VH and eCL VH groups had significantly lower mean hemoglobin (10.3 +/- 1.4g/dL and 10.6 +/- 1g/dL, respectively) compared with the NG group (11.9 +/- 1.4g/dL), p < 0.001. Furthermore, interdialytic weight gain (kg) was significantly higher in eCL VII group (3.13 +/- 0.8) than in NG group (2.3 +/- 1.1), p < 0.001. Mean IVC index of the eL VH group (10.83 +/- 2.07 mm/m(2)) was significantly higher than corresponding indexes of NG (10.83 +/- 2.07 mm/m2), CR (8.31 +/- 1.32 mm/m(2)) and cL VH (8.12 +/- 2.06 mm/m(2)) groups (p < 0.001 for each comparisons). Conclusion. Mean arterial pressure, hemoglobin, IVC index, and interdialytic weight gain were found to be independent predictors of LV geometry (R(2) = 0.147; p < 0.001) in HD patients.”
“Novel phenolic type of thermoset resins were synthesized, and their mechanical and toughness

properties were Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor evaluated. Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) phenolic resins were modified to broaden their applications for modern composite structures. A first modification consisted of copolymerization of Phenol with Cardanol during the synthesis of resole phenolic (CPF) resins. The modified phenolic resins (CPF) were prepared at various molar ratios of total Phenol to Formaldehyde (F : P ratio) and with different weight ratios of Phenol to Cardanol. CPF resins with a maximum content of 40 wt % of Cardanol were synthesized and used. The CPF resins were applied as a plasticizer and toughening agent to the base PF resins. Both resins (CPF/PF) were mixed in different proportions, and their thermal and mechanical properties were then established. A full miscibility of the two resins was observed with the formation of a single-phase system.

Recent findings

The actual target of transfusion of re

Recent findings

The actual target of transfusion of red blood cells is the maintenance of AICAR solubility dmso adequate tissue oxygenation. Recent studies suggest that, besides hemoglobin concentration, mixed or central venous oxygen saturation may also be used as surrogate markers for the estimation

of transfusion requirement. However, variables reflecting the concrete target of transfusion, that is tissue oxygenation, appear to be more suitable in this regard. In addition, there is an increasing body of evidence on adverse effects of transfusion of primarily older – red blood cells on tissue oxygenation and microcirculation. This might be explained, at least in part, by so-called storage lesions, which commence immediately after donation of blood and aggravate over time.


Large-scale prospective randomized trials are needed to explicitly clarify the role of new transfusion triggers, such as tissue oxygenation, and the impact of storage lesions of packed red blood cells on tissue oxygenation and – more important – on clinical outcomes in different patient populations.”
“The purpose of the current study was to mask the taste of cetirizine HCl and to incorporate the granules produced in oral disintegrating tablets (ODT). The bitter, active substance was coated by fluidized bed coating using EudragitA (R) RL30-D

at levels between 15% and 40% w/w. The ODTs were developed XL184 concentration by varying the ratio of superdisintegrants such as sodium croscarmellose, crospovidone grades and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC). A direct compression process was used to compress the ODTs under various compaction forces to optimize tablet robustness. The properties of the compressed tablets including porosity, hardness, friability and dissolution profiles were further investigated. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of

the tablet disintegration times showed almost identical rapid Dibutyryl-cAMP cell line disintegration below 10 s at the optimal levels of each superdisintegrant. Finally, the taste and sensory evaluation in human volunteers demonstrated excellence in masking the bitter active and tablet palatability.”
“Increased rates of dementia throughout the world are creating an emergent need for successful preventive and treatment strategies. Despite a lack of any significant scientific basis, herbal remedies and other types of “”complementary and alternative medicine”" (CAM) are being aggressively marketed for both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in regard to memory disorders. In the past few years, a small number of controlled studies have explored the effectiveness of some of the more popular herbal and CAM remedies, including gingko biloba, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and omega-3 fatty acids.

By contrast, only 1% (1 of 99) of wolves sampled

from two

By contrast, only 1% (1 of 99) of wolves sampled

from two outbred, wolf populations exhibited this malformity. Moreover, in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) lumbosacral transitional vertebrae are associated with cauda equina syndrome, which can cause paresis, paralysis, locomotor difficulties in the rear legs and tail, and back pain. Whereas many studies illustrate how genetic deterioration affects population-level phenomena, such as survival and reproduction, these results are distinctive for demonstrating how genetic deterioration this website has compromised the morphology of individuals in a free-ranging population. The results are also significant because many policy makers and stakeholders and some conservation professionals use examples like Isle Royale wolves to downplay the consequences of genetic deterioration. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome (PFPAS) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome often associated with ovarian and pancreatic cancers, and rarely lung and breast cancers. A 39-year-old patient with breast

cancer underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radical mastectomy, and radiation therapy. Subsequently, the patient developed PFPAS coinciding with progression of the breast cancer. The rheumatological symptoms were severe causing significant distress and handicap. The patient had a partial response to treatment with corticosteroids. A literature review of PFPAS and its relation to breast OTX015 price cancer is discussed.”
“Loss of apico-basal

polarity is one of the crucial factors that drives epithelial tumor progression. scribble/discs large/lethal giant larvae (scrib/dlg/lgl), a group of apico-basal polarity genes, were initially identified as members of “”neoplastic”" selleck tumor-suppressors in flies. The components of the Hippo signaling pathway, which is crucial for organ size control and cancer development, were also identified through Drosophila genetic screens as members of “”hyperplastic”" tumor-suppressors. Accumulating evidence in recent studies implies that these two tumor-suppressor signaling pathways are not mutually exclusive but rather cooperatively act to give rise to highly malignant tumors. The interaction of these tumor-suppressor pathways could include deregulations of actin cytoskeleton, cell-cell contact, and apical-domain size of the epithelial cell.”
“BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a life-threatening disease manifested by progressive pulmonary vascular remodeling, compromised pulmonary blood flow and right heart failure. Most studies have explored how pulmonary endothelial function modulates disease pathogenesis. We hypothesize that IPAH is a progressive panvasculopathy, affecting both pulmonary and systemic vascular beds, and that systemic endothelial dysfunction correlates with disease severity.

“Background: Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is a growin

“Background: Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is a growing global problem. PTA can be performed without nephrotoxic contrast, utilizing Doppler-ultrasound (Duplex) guidance. Duplex-guided infra-inguinal interventions and access-related interventions have been reported. Duplex-guided

LY2109761 purchase iliac interventions have not been performed to any extent because of the anatomic location. In our study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of Duplex-guided percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (DuPTA) in iliac arteries.

Methods: From June 2012 until February 2013, 31 patients (35 iliac lesions), underwent DuPTA. Indications ranged from Rutherford 3 to 5. Preoperative evaluation

included Ankle Brachial Index (ABI), Duplex and MRA. Procedural success was defined as crossing the lesion with a guidewire and dilating or stenting the lesion. Clinical success was defined as 50% reduction in peak systolic velocity (PSV) or clinical improvement. PSV was evaluated after PTA, then at 2 weeks. learn more Clinical results were assessed 2 weeks after the procedure.

Results: Procedural success was achieved in 94% of patients (33/35), all of whom also had clinical success. Post-procedural PSV reduction showed an average improvement of 63% (431 cm/s to 153 cm/s). Mean preoperative ABI was 0.72 and improved to 0.88 postoperatively.

Conclusions: PTA using Duplex-guidance in significant iliac stenosis is a safe method with major advantages in patients at high risk for developing contrast-induced nephropathy. (C) 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

aimed to evaluate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) at a hospital, determine the variation in the incidence of ADRs between genders and among age groups, and determine the pharmacological class most often involved in ADRs. A longitudinal prospective study was conducted over a period of 5 months by using an active search in all hospital units. Four hundred forty-six patients were CFTR inhibitor followed during their hospitalization; 103 showed ADRs, resulting in a 23% overall incidence. Suspected ADRs were identified in 136 patients. From this group of patients, 9 reactions were classified as definite (6.6%), 77 as probable (56.6%), and 50 as possible (36.8%). Female gender, patient age less than 65 years, and hospitalization in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Ward were factors associated with a higher incidence of ADR development. The active search is a suitable instrument for assessing the incidence of ADRs in the hospital.”

Few data exist regarding antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (ASCP) and its application in newborn and juvenile patients.