These results suggest that IGF1 polymorphism has a possible role

These results suggest that IGF1 polymorphism has a possible role in changing the genetic susceptibility to LOAD in a Han Chinese population. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Burkitt’s lymphoma is a highly aggressive

B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is the fastest growing human tumour. The disease click here is associated with Epstein-Barr virus and was one of the first tumours shown to have a chromosomal translocation that activates an oncogene (c-MYC). Burkitt’s lymphoma is the most common childhood cancer in areas where malaria is holoendemic. The incidence is very high in immunosuppressed patients in non-endemic areas, especially when associated with HIV infection. Outcome with intensive chemotherapy has improved and is now excellent in children, but the prognosis is poor in elderly adults. The success of intensive treatment relies on good supportive care. The therapy offered in oncology units in low-income countries is not as aggressive as in centres in high-income countries PLX4032 order and outcomes are less successful. Adjuvant monoclonal antibody therapy with rituximab shows promise for improved outcomes and reduced

toxic effects in the future.”
“The antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, often induces weight gain and glucose metabolism disturbances, which may result from feeding pattern abnormalities.

The objectives of the study were to examine the effects of a chronic olanzapine treatment on feeding patterns in the rat and to investigate a potential time-related association between feeding patterns and the appearance of glucose metabolism abnormalities and adiposity.

Male rats were treated with olanzapine (2 mg/kg/day), haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day) or a control solution (drugs mixed with the food). In experiment 1, treatments lasted 26 days and feeding

patterns were measured on day 21. In experiment 2, treatments lasted for 46 days, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was realised on day 31. At the end Sulfite dehydrogenase of both experiments, plasma parameters and body composition were analysed.

In experiment 1, olanzapine-treated animals showed increased meal number, decreased ingestion rate, meal size and inter-meal interval, and no change in total food intake. Plasma glucose, OGTT and body composition were not altered. In experiment 2, after 31 days of treatment, fasting blood glucose was increased and OGTT indicated an insulin resistance. After 46 days of treatment, hyperglycaemia was aggravated (compared to 31 days), and adiposity was increased in olanzapine-treated animals. In both experiments, the haloperidol-treated rats did not differ from the control ones.

Chronic olanzapine treatment produces changes in feeding patterns, in a way consistent with an increased incentive drive to eat.

Light microscopic study also revealed putative local circuit conn

Light microscopic study also revealed putative local circuit connections within RVLM. In this investigation we tested the hypothesis that RVLM C1 neurons elaborate a local circuit synaptic network that permits communication between C1 neurons giving rise to supraspinal and reticulospinal projections. A replication defective lentivirus vector that expresses enhanced green fluorescent Wortmannin price protein (EGFP) under the control of a synthetic dopamine beta hydroxylase (D beta H) promoter was used to label C1 neurons and their processes. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated thin varicose axons immunopositive for EGFP and tyrosine hydroxylase that formed close

appositions to C1 somata and dendrites throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the C1 area. Dual-labeled electron microscopic analysis revealed axosomatic, axodendritic and axospinous synaptic contacts with C1 and non-C1 neurons with a distribution recapitulating that observed in the light microscopic analysis. Labeled boutons were large, contained light axoplasm, lucent spherical vesicles, and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts.

Collectively these data demonstrate that C1 neurons form a synaptic network within the C1 area that may function to coordinate activity among projection-specific subpopulations of neurons. The data also suggest that the boundaries of RVLM should be defined on the basis of function criteria rather than the C1 phenotype of neurons. (c) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this study, variants of two genes coding for cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) were analysed in a case-control sample using THZ1 supplier 398 schizophrenic patients and 391 healthy controls. All subjects were unrelated Han Chinese from Shanghai. No difference was observed on the allelic or genotypic distribution of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms between the groups. However, the two-marker haplotypes covering components CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A5*3 Calpain were observed to be significantly

associated with schizophrenia (corrected global p = 0.0009). In addition, we identified one common risk haplotype, G/G (present in 59.5% of the general population). The results suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 might play a role in genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, confirmatory studies in independent samples are needed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Glutamate transport in early, undifferentiated oligodendrocytic precursors has not been characterized thus far. Here we show that human oligodendroglioma Hs683 cells are not endowed with EAAT-dependent anionic amino acid transport. However, in these cells, but not in U373 human glioblastoma cells, valproic acid (VPA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, markedly induces SLC1A1 mRNA, which encodes for the glutamate transporter EAAT3. The effect is detectable after 8 h and persists up to 120 h of treatment.

Pretreatment with varenicline, a partial agonist selective for be

Pretreatment with varenicline, a partial agonist selective for beta 2* nAChRs, blocked the sensitizing effect of nicotine on AMPH-stimulated locomotor behavior. Nicotine pretreatment sensitized AMPH-induced DA overflow in

slices from ventral (nucleus accumbens, NAc), but not dorsal striatum as compared to saline-pretreated rats. Nicotine sensitization of the DA overflow was blocked by DH beta E. Pretreatment with the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+)-MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min before nicotine blocked sensitization of both locomotion and DA overflow in response to AMPH challenge. These results demonstrate Apoptosis inhibitor that activation of the beta 2* nAChRs and NMDA receptors are required for the rapid sensitizing effect of nicotine on AMPH actions.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

‘Trends in Neuropharmacology: In Memory of Erminio Costa’. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study aimed to elucidate dynamic effects of the Nuss procedure on the spine in the treatment of patients with pectus excavatum with asymmetric thoraces.

Methods: Twenty-five patients with pectus Z-DEVD-FMK cost excavatum who underwent the Nuss procedure were categorized into 4 groups by preoperative morphology of the spine and thoracic asymmetry. In group 1 (n = 8), the right side of the thorax was concave and the spine bowed to the right. In group 2 (n = 4), the right side of the thorax was concave and the spine bowed to the left. In group 3 (n = 5), the left side of the thorax was concave and the spine bowed to the right.

In group 4 (n = 8), the left side of the thorax was concave and the spine bowed to the left. With computed tomographic Cisplatin data, finite-element models were produced to simulate each patient’s thorax. Thereafter, dynamic response patterns of the spine to the Nuss procedure were examined. Validity of these biomechanical findings was verified by referring to clinical outcomes.

Results: In group 1 and group 4 models, deformed spines were straightened; in group 2 and group 3 models, spinal bowing increased. These biomechanical findings were compatible with clinical evaluations.

Conclusions: Performance of the Nuss procedure for asymmetric pectus excavatum exerts dynamic influence on the spine. Response patterns of the spine are predictable from morphologic relationships between the asymmetric patterns of the anterior thoracic wall and the spine. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;140:1294-9)”
“Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) functions as one of the major mediators of the mammalian stress response and appears to play a key role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Small molecule CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel form of pharmacotherapy for these disorders.

We hypothesized that this trend results from a predominance of a

We hypothesized that this trend results from a predominance of a directionally oriented error factor of brain origin. Accordingly, elimination LGK-974 price of nonbrain (technical) error factors could augment this trend. Thus, implantation accuracy

could be improved by anterolateral compensation during target planning.

METHODS: Surgical technique was revised to minimize technical error factors. During 22 implantations, targets were selected on axial magnetic resonance imaging scans up to 1.5 mm anterolateral from the STN center. Using fusion of postoperative computed tomographic and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans, implantation errors in the axial plane were obtained and compared with distances from the lead to the STN to evaluate the benefit of anterolateral compensation.

RESULTS: Twenty errors and the mean error had a posteromedial direction. The average distances from the lead to the target and to the STN were find more 1.7 mm (range, 0.8-3.1 mm) and 1.1 mm (range, 0.1-1.9 mm), respectively. The difference between the 2 distances was

significant (paired t test, P < 0.0001). The lower parts of the lead were consistently bent in the posteromedial direction on postoperative scout computed tomographic scans, suggesting that a brain-related factor is responsible for the reported error.

CONCLUSION: Elimination of the technical factors MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit of error during STN deep brain stimulation implantation can result in a consistent posteromedial error. Implantation accuracy may be improved by compensation for this error in advance.”
“Purpose: We assessed the outcome of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis severe enough to require cystoscopy and clot evacuation.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the records of 33 patients with cyclophosphamide or radiation induced hemorrhagic cystitis treated with cystoscopy.

Results: Mean followup

of living patients was 76 months. Of 33 patients 20 (61%) had resolution of hematuria after single cystoscopy unrelated to hemorrhagic cystitis etiology. Only 4 of 11 patients (36%) had resolution after 2 or more cystoscopies, and all were in the radiation induced hemorrhagic cystitis group (4 of 6, 67%) with none in the cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis group (0 of 5, p = 0.02). Hematuria was refractory to cystoscopy in 9 patients and ileal conduits were created in 4. Kaplan-Meier overall survival at 1, 2 and 5 years was 58%, 51% and 43%, respectively, with survival tending to be worse in patients who received cyclophosphamide for bone marrow transplantation induction. Of the 18 deaths 3 were due to complications of hemorrhagic cystitis, 13 were due to the disease underlying the hemorrhagic cystitis and 2 were unrelated.

“In a world of advanced molecular methods quantifying viru

“In a world of advanced molecular methods quantifying viruses in water remains one of the most inefficient and costly. Using a general molecular DNA/RNA probe – SYBR Gold combined with differential filtration a fast, cost effective and sensitive method is presented to determine the concentration of viruses in water in situ or on-line. The approach ISRIB differentiates the nucleotide size fractions that are stained with SYBR Gold to show only those associated

with Viral DNA and RNA. There was a linear relationship between the fluorescence maxima for SYBR Gold added to wastewater and viral numbers determined with direct counting using epifluorescent microscopy (r(2) = 0.97) and for a range of diverse natural water samples (r(2) = 0.86). The method was applied to water from the

tropics and Antarctica, marine and freshwater environments where natural viral abundances ranged from 10(6) to 10(8) viruses mL(-1). The method takes into account the background fluorescence selleck products that represented 70% of total fluorescence and any auto-fluorescence due to other dissolved organic carbon. While DNAse II lowered the background fluorescence associated with free DNA and RNA it could not be eliminated. The technique presented is suitable for monitoring in situ viral numbers in natural water bodies and engineered water treatment processes. This on-line viral monitoring design has the potential to replace human viral pathogen indicators. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

fatal neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by loss of motoneurons of the brainstem and spinal cord, and corticospinal neurons of the motor cortex. There is also increasing evidence of involvement of glial cells and interneurons, with non-cell autonomous Selleck Carfilzomib disease mechanisms now thought to contribute to motoneuron degeneration in ALS. Given the apparent involvement of altered motoneuron excitability in ALS and the recent demonstration that motoneuron excitability is controlled by C-boutons, a specific class of synaptic input recently shown to originate from a small cluster of spinal interneurons, we hypothesised that perturbations in C-bouton inputs to motoneurons may contribute to altered excitability and the eventual degeneration of motoneurons in ALS. To begin to assess this we performed a detailed, developmental study of the anatomy of C-boutons in a mouse model of ALS (G93A SOD1 mutant). We found that C-bouton number is unchanged in ALS mice compared to wildtype littermates at any age. In contrast, we found that the size of C-boutons increases in ALS mice between postnatal day (P)8 and P30, with boutons remaining larger throughout symptomatic stages (P120-P140). Interestingly, we found that C-boutons are only enlarged in male mice. We found no evidence of concomitant changes in clusters of postsynaptic proteins known to align with C-boutons (Kv2.1 K+ channels and m(2)-type muscarinic receptors).

This study was undertaken to (1) determine the incidence of SCIP

This study was undertaken to (1) determine the incidence of SCIP outliers in patients receiving a continuous insulin infusion (CII) targeted to maintain perioperative serum glucose levels less than 180 mg/dL after cardiac surgery, (2) identify the profile of patients who are SCIP outliers, (3) determine whether SCIP outliers have increased morbidity and mortality, and (4) identify more relevant benchmarks for glycemic control in patients having Paclitaxel purchase cardiac surgery.

Methods: Between January 1, 2008, and April 30, 2011, a total of 832 patients underwent cardiac surgery

and received CII to maintain serum blood glucose levels of less than 180 mg/dL. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients compliant with SCIP and SCIP outliers.

Results: The incidence of SCIP outliers was 6.6% (55/832). Patients more likely to be SCIP outliers had diabetes mellitus (38, 69% vs 250, 32%; P<.0001), a higher hemoglobin A1c (8.74 +/- 2.25 vs 7.59 +/- 2.90; P<.0009), BMS-777607 price and a higher body mass index (31.1 +/- 6.5 vs 29.2 +/- 5.7; P=.03). However, SCIP outliers had no increase in morbidity, mortality, or hospital length of stay.


Patients undergoing cardiac surgery may still be SCIP outliers despite CII targeted to maintain serum glucose levels below 180 mg/dL; however, SCIP outliers had no increase in morbidity, mortality, or length of stay. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013;145:590-7)”
“The question whether attentional

capture by salient visual stimuli is driven by bottom-up salience or is contingent on top-down task set is still under dispute. We show that the ability of size singletons to capture attention is determined by current search goals. Participants searched for small or large target singletons among medium-size distractors. Attentional Paclitaxel nmr capture by small or large size singleton cues that preceded target search displays was reflected by spatial cueing effects and N2pc components. These effects were observed only when these cues matched the current target-defining feature, but not for physically identical but mismatching cues. Results demonstrate that attentional capture by size singletons is not driven by bottom-up salience, but is controlled by feature-specific task settings.”
“Mechanisms underlying pure tactile attentional selection were investigated. Tactile imperative stimuli were preceded by symbolic tactile cues directing attention to the left or right (directional cues), or to both hands (non-directional cues). Comparison of ERP waveforms on directional and non-directional cue trials showed that attentional modulations at N140 and P200 components reflect mainly enhancement of stimuli at the attended, while longer latency modulations reflect mainly suppression of processing of stimuli at the unattended location.

“Purpose: We evaluated the hypothesis that circulating tum

“Purpose: We evaluated the hypothesis that circulating tumor cells as determined using the CellSearch (TM) System would correlate with tumor volume, pathological stage and Gleason score in men with localized prostate cancer.

Materials and Methods: Samples of blood (30 ml) were drawn from FAK inhibitor 97 men with localized prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy, on postoperative days 2 to 3 and at 6 weeks. A control group consisted of 25 men with an increased prostate specific antigen and no tumor detected on extended prostate biopsy. Samples were analyzed for circulating tumor cells using the CellSearch System.

Results: Circulating tumor

cells were detected in 21% of patients with cancer and 20% of controls (p = 0.946). At 6 weeks after prostatectomy circulating tumor cells were detected in 16% and 11% (p = 0.51) of the men positive and negative for circulating tumor cells at baseline, respectively. Of the 20 patients with cancer who had circulating tumor cells at baseline 18 showed no circulating tumor cells after surgery. Circulating tumor cell values did not correlate with tumor volume, pathological

stage or Gleason score. Only 3.1% of the men with cancer and 8% of the control group had 3 or more circulating tumor cells per 22.5 ml blood at baseline.

Conclusions: In metastatic breast, prostate and other cancers more than 5 circulating tumor cells are often detected using the CellSearch System, and may correlate with prognosis. However, in the setting of localized prostate cancer the number of detectable circulating tumor cells was low, with findings comparable to those in men who were biopsy Selisistat clinical trial negative for cancer. We found no correlation between the number

of circulating tumor cells and known prognostic factors in this population.”
“Background: Endomyocardial fibrosis is the most common restrictive cardiomyopathy worldwide. It has no specific treatment and carries a poor prognosis, since most patients present with advanced heart failure. On the basis of clinical series, Acetophenone regional variations in distribution have been reported within several countries in Africa, Asia, and South America, but large-scale data are lacking on the epidemiologic features and early stages of the disease.

Methods: We used transthoracic echocardiography to determine the prevalence of endomyocardial fibrosis in a rural area of Mozambique. We screened a random sample of 1063 subjects of all age groups selected by clustering. Major and minor diagnostic criteria were defined, and a severity score was developed and applied. Cases were classified according to the distribution and severity of the lesions in the heart.

Results: The estimated overall prevalence of endomyocardial fibrosis was 19.8%, or 211 of 1063 subjects (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.4 to 22.2). The prevalence was highest among persons 10 to 19 years of age (28.1%, or 73 of 260 subjects [95% CI, 22.6 to 33.

Before and after the interventions, the upper limb section of the

Before and after the interventions, the upper limb section of the Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM-UL) was blindly evaluated, and functional magnetic resonance imaging was administered while the patients executed a passive fist clutch task.

Two cortical reorganization patterns were found. ARS-1620 in vivo One pattern consisted of the growth in activation in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (cSMC) for most patients (six in the MIT group, five in

the CRT group), and the other consisted of focusing of the activation in the cSMC with increasing of the laterality index of the SMC for a small portion of patients (three in the MIT group, one in the CRT group). When we applied correlation analyses to the variables of relative Delta cSMC and Delta FM-UL in the 11 patients who experienced the first pattern, a positive relationship was detected.

Our results indicate that different CB-839 ic50 cortical reorganization patterns (increases in or focusing of recruitment to the cSMC region) exist in chronic stroke patients after interventions, and patients may choose efficient patterns to improve their motor function.”
“While persons at risk for

alcohol dependence by virtue of heavy drinking patterns or family history (FH) of alcohol use disorders have exhibited differential alcohol responses on a variety of measures, few studies have examined alcohol’s effects on eye movements in these subgroups.

The purpose of this study was to (1) conduct a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of alcohol’s effects on eye

movements and (2) examine the impact of these risk factors on oculomotor response to alcohol.

A within-subject, double-blind laboratory study was conducted in N = 138 heavy (HD; n = 78) and light social drinkers (LD; n = 60) with self-reported positive (FH+) or negative (FH-) family history. Subjects participated in three laboratory sessions in which they consumed a beverage containing a high (0.8 g/kg) or low (0.4 g/kg) dose of alcohol or placebo. Smooth pursuit, pro-saccadic, and anti-saccadic eye movements were recorded before and at two intervals after Phloretin alcohol consumption.

Alcohol significantly impaired smooth pursuit gain and pro- and anti-saccade latency, velocity, and accuracy in a dose and time specific matter. HD and LD showed similar impairment on smooth pursuit gain and anti-saccade measures, but HD were less impaired in pro-saccade latency, velocity, and accuracy. FH+ and FH- subjects were equally impaired in nearly all pro- and anti-saccade measures, but FH+ were less impaired in smooth pursuit gain.

In sum, alcohol produced systematic impairment on oculomotor functioning, even at a non-intoxicating dose. Furthermore, high- and low-risk drinkers may be vulnerable to select performance deficits relative to eye movement task.”
“Moloney leukemia virus type 10 protein (MOV10) is an RNA helicase that is induced by type I interferon. It inhibits HIV replication at several steps of its replicative cycle.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

The Dot-ELISA te

Significance and Impact of the Study:

The Dot-ELISA test is simple, specific, rapid and inexpensive. It is suitable for identifying a large number of samples and, hence, reducing the death rate of patients with leptospirosis.”

To study the diversity of rumen methanogens in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from North India by using 16S rRNA gene libraries obtained from the pooled rumen content from four animals Idasanutlin molecular weight and using suitable software analysis.

Methods and Results:

Genomic DNA was isolated and PCR was set up by using specific primers. Amplified product was cloned into a suitable vector and the positive

clones were selected on the basis of blue-white screening and sequenced. The resulting nucleotide sequences were selleck inhibitor arranged in the phylogenetic tree. A total of 108 clones were examined, revealing 17 different 16S rRNA gene sequences or phylotypes. Of the 17 phylotypes, 15 (102 of 108 clones) belonged to the genus Methanomicrobium, indicating that the genus Methanomicrobium is the most dominant component of methanogen populations in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from North India. The largest group of clones (102 clones)

was more than 98% similar to Methanomicrobium mobile. BLAST analysis of the rumen contents from individual animals also revealed 17 different phylotypes with a range of 3-10 phylotypes per animal.


Methanomicrobium phylotype is the most selleck screening library dominant phylotype of methanogens present in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

Significance and Impact of the Study:

Effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobium phylotype to reduce the methane emission from rumen contents and thus help in preventing global warming.”

The goal of the study was to develop a reliable, reproducible and rapid method of culture in order to screen a large number of fungal transformants.

Methods and Results:

The method is based upon miniaturized cell cultures and automated expression screening in microwell plates. For the method

development, 50 recombinant Aspergillus vadensis clones producing feruloyl esterase B (FaeB) from Aspergillus niger were screened in 6 days. Then a panel of clones showing various behaviours was checked in flasks in order to demonstrate the reproducibility of the method. Using this method, a transformant of A. vadensis producing 1 center dot 2 g l(-1) of FaeB was selected (12-fold more than the A. niger overproducing strain).


This miniaturized culture method allows to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The procedure has the advantages of being efficient, time-saving and more efficient than conventional in-flask culture screening as it can screen 800 clones per day after a culture of 3 days.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

This method could be applied to any other fungal strain culture, enzyme activity or biodiversity screening.

Surprisingly, as shown in our and other previous studies, ifenpro

Surprisingly, as shown in our and other previous studies, ifenprodil, an antagonist of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, fails to inhibit depotentiation(ex vivo) at a saturating concentration (10 mu M), although it has been suggested that GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors are required for fear extinction. Because ifenprodil is also known to act on other molecular Selleckchem AG14699 targets in addition to GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, especially at high concentrations (i.e., >= 10 mu M), the ineffectiveness of 10 mu M of ifenprodil

may be due to its side effects. Therefore, in the present study, we tested Ro25-6981, a more specific antagonist of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, and a lower concentration (3 mu M) of ifenprodil, which may reduce any possible side effects. Ro25-6981 (3 mu M) blocked both depotentiation(ex vivo) and late-phase long-term potentiation at T-LA synapses. While 10 mu M ifenprodil failed to inhibit depotentiation(ex vivo), a lower concentration (3 mu M) of ifenprodil blocked depotentiation(ex vivo). Together,

our findings suggest that depotentiation(ex vivo) requires GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Fedratinib Umbilical cord infection (omphalitis) is a risk factor for neonatal sepsis and mortality in low-resource settings where home deliveries are common. We aimed to assess the effect of umbilical-cord cleansing with 4% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution, with or without handwashing with antiseptic soap, on the incidence of omphalitis and neonatal mortality.

Methods We did a two-by-two factorial, cluster-randomised trial in Dadu, a rural area of Sindh province, Pakistan. Clusters were defined as the population covered by a functional traditional

birth attendant (TBA), and were randomly C1GALT1 allocated to one of four groups (groups A to D) with a computer-generated random number sequence. Implementation and data collection teams were masked to allocation. Liveborn infants delivered by participating TBAs who received birth kits were eligible for enrolment in the study. One intervention comprised birth kits containing 4% CHX solution for application to the cord at birth by TBAs and once daily by family members for up to 14 days along with soap and educational messages promoting hand washing. One intervention was CHX solution only and another was handwashing only. Standard dry cord care was promoted in the control group. The primary outcomes were incidence of neonatal omphalitis and neonatal mortality. The trial is registered with, number NCT00682006.