40 reported that TEE values obtained from HR monitoring were 190 kcal/day higher as compared to DLW. In contrast, Van den Berg-Emons and colleagues41 found that DLW gave higher TEE values than HR by 17 kcal/day. In the current study, we found that TEE estimated by HR analysis was similar to that assessed
by DLW in ordinary males and females. The average difference was only 9 kcal/day, which was better than the above-mentioned studies. Thus, our results indicate that HR analysis using Suunto’s software (MoveSense HRAnalyzer 2011a, RC1) can be applied for TEE estimation in a free-living ordinary population at the group level. The REE is the amount of energy expended by the metabolically active components of the Ibrutinib mw body at rest. FFM accounts for about 65%–90% of the individual variance in REE,27 and the REE accounts for about 60%–75% of the TEE.6 The knowledge of the source of the REE and its relationship with the TEE has been used as a basis for establishing effective weight management programs.42 Substantial efforts have been made to develop age- and gender-specific28, 43, 44 and 45 or body composition-specific27 and 46 equations to estimate the REE. A Swiss study group47 compared
five equations; the Harris–Benedict, Mifflin–St Jeor, Owen, World Health Organization and Lührmann methods, to indirect calorimetry, and found that the mean differences varied between −41 and 53 kcal/day in the elderly. We found mean differences of 25, 28, and 73 kcal/day in middle-aged women, men and young women, respectively, indicating that the Harris–Benedict equation overestimated the REE, NVP-BGJ398 mouse especially in the younger female population, as compared to indirect calorimetric GEA. Thalidomide Few studies have validated the Cunningham equation used by BIA against indirect calorimetry.10 and 48 We found that there were no significant differences in the REE estimates between GEA and the Cunningham equation used by BIA (InBody 720) among middle-aged
men and women. However, the Cunningham equation significantly underestimated the REE in 19-year-old young women. This indicates that the relationship between FFM and the REE is probably age-specific, and the predictive equations derived from adults may not be applicable to younger people. The major limitation of our study was that the TEE estimation using HR analysis was based on a 24-h recording, whereas the TEE derived from DLW reflects the average daily energy expenditure over 14 days. This is one of the main causes underlying the differences between TEE estimates from HR analysis vs. DLW and the large individual variation. However, the variance in TEE estimation between the DLW and HR methods found in our study has also been reported in other studies. 11, 16, 22, 40 and 49 The HR monitoring has an advantage in monitoring day-to-day energy expenditure, which is important for most practical purposes.