The present results suggest that FAS -670 polymorphism seems to be associated with susceptibility to HTLV-1 and may increase the chance to develop TSP/HAM among HTLV-1 infected persons. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are used worldwide for the treatment and prophylaxis of thromboembolic disorders. Routine laboratory tests are not required due to the predictable pharmacokinetics of LMWHs,
with the exception of pregnant patients, children, patients with renal failure, morbid obesity, or advanced age. Anti-Factor Xa (anti-FXa) plasma levels are most often employed in the assessment and guidance of accurate dosing in these patient cohorts.\n\nMaterials and methods: A LMWH calibration curve was generated using citrated human pooled plasma spiked with pharmacologically relevant concentrations (0-1.2 U/ml) of PD98059 in vitro two low molecular weight heparins; enoxaparin and tinzaparin. Least squares analysis determined the best curve fit for this set of data which returned low sum of squares (SS) values for the log linear fit with an R-2 value of 0.98. 30 patient samples were tested in the fluorogenic assay and concentrations were determined using the log linear regression equation and correlated with a standard chromogenic assay used for heparin monitoring.\n\nResults: A statistically significant correlation was found between the fluorogenic and the chromogenic anti-FXa
assays for 30 patient samples, with a slope of 0.829, offset of 0.258 and an R-2 value of 0.72 (p<0.0001).\n\nConclusions: In the study presented here, a fluorogenic anti-FXa BI 6727 price assay was correlated with a standard laboratory chromogenic anti-FXa assay using samples from patients on LMWH therapy. Significant correlations between the values
derived by the fluorogenic and chromogenic anti-FXa assays were found for the patient cohort tested in this study. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) causes bone loss. Although we reported previously that risedronate significantly recovers bone mineral density (BMD) for up to 12 months, there have been no reports with longer follow-up periods to date. This study CDK activation extended our earlier series extending the follow-up period to 24 months. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed PCa without lumbar spine metastasis and underwent ADT. Lumbar spine BMD, urinary deoxypyridinoline (uDPD) and serum bone alkaline phosphatase were measured at 6, 12 and 24 months. Among the total of 96 patients, we analyzed 26 and 18 patients in risedronate administration and control groups, respectively. BMD relative to the young adult mean ratio, uDPD and serum bone alkaline phosphatase of the risedronate administration group recovered significantly after 24 months compared with the control group (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively).
\n\nConclusion\n\nPartnering with local EMS may be an effective way to identify and reach community residents with uncontrolled HBP with information on their medical condition and
to encourage them to have follow-up screening.”
“In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently, first the results of retention studies in general education are presented, followed by those of studies of basic science knowledge in medical education. The results of the review, in the general Apoptosis inhibitor educational domain as well as in medical education, suggest that approximately two-third to three-fourth of knowledge will be retained after one year, with a further decrease to slightly below fifty percent in the next year. Finally, some recommendations are made for instructional strategies in curricula to improve long term retention of the subject matter dealt with.”
“Cardiovascular diseases are the most common nonmalignant cause of death in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, especially after mediastinal irradiation. We investigated the role of computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTA)
as a screening tool for coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic HL survivors, and related CTA findings to exercise Napabucasin purchase testing and subsequent interventions. Patients were eligible for this phase II study if at least 10 years disease-free and treated with mediastinal radiotherapy. Screening consisted of electrocardiogram, exercise testing and CTA. Primary end point
was significant CAD (stenosis bigger than 50%) on CTA. CTA screening was considered to be indicated for testing in a larger population if a parts per thousand RSL3 yen6 of 50 CTA scanned patients (12%) would need revascularization. Screening was evaluated with a questionnaire before and after screening. Fifty-two patients were included, and 48 patients underwent CTA. Median age was 47 years, time since HL diagnosis 21 years. There were 45 evaluable scans. Significant CAD on CTA was found in 20% (N = 9), significantly increased compared with the 7% expected abnormalities (P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 8.3% to 31.7%). In 11% (N = 5), significant stenosis was confirmed at coronary angiography, and revascularization was carried out. Additionally, two patients were treated with optimal medical therapy. Ninety percent of patients were content with screening, regardless whether the CTA showed abnormalities. Prevalence of significant CAD among HL survivors is high, while asymptomatic even in the presence of life-threatening CAD. This might justify screening by CTA in asymptomatic HL survivors who had mediastinal radiotherapy, but needs to be evaluated in a larger cohort.
“Behcet’s disease (BD)
see more is a chronic multisystem disorder. Infectious agents, immune system mechanisms, and genetic factors are implicated in the etiopathogenesis of BD, which remains to be explained. The human MDR1 (ABCB1) gene encoder P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a key role in drug disposition, serves as a protective mechanism against xenobiotics, and provides additional protection for the brain, testis, and fetus. We investigated the genotype and haplotype distributions of three MDR1 gene polymorphisms (C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T) in 104 BD patients and 130 control subjects. The genotyping analysis was performed by using PCR-RFLP methods.\n\nNo statistically significant differences were found for the genotypic and allelic distributions of three individual this website single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MDR1 gene between BD patients and control subjects in this study (p > 0.05). However, combined genotype and haplotype frequencies have found statistically significant differences between BD and control subjects for some combinations (p < 0.05). The CC-GG binary genotype for C1236T-G2677T/A loci couple in particular may have a high degree of predisposition
to BD (p = 0.009: OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.41-6.54).\n\nFurthermore, significant differences between colchicine-responsive and -nonresponsive groups were found. Genotypic and allelic distributions of C3435T and G2677T/A loci, as well as their genotype and haplotype combinations, were found to have statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The TT genotype for the C3435T locus (p = 0.001; OR, 6.59; 95% CI, 1.86-23.30) and
T allele (p= 0.009; OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18-3.70) plays a substantial role in the colchicine response. Our study showed that MDR1 genes and their polymorphisms may affect a patient’s BD susceptibility and colchicine response. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection is distinctive in that it causes a rapid onset of clinical disease relative to other retroviruses. In order to understand the interaction dynamics between EIAV and the host immune response, we explored the effects of EIAV and its S2 protein in the regulation of the cytokine and chemokine response in macrophages. EIAV infection markedly altered the expression pattern of a variety of pro-inflammatory MK-0518 datasheet cytokines and chemokines monitored in the study. Comparative studies in the cytokine response between EIAV(17) and EIAV(17 Delta S2) infection revealed that S2 enhances the expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, MCP-2, MIP-1 beta and IP-10. Moreover, S2 specifically induced the expression of the newly discovered cytokine, IL-34. Taken together, these results may help explain the effect of cytokine and chemokine dysregulation in EIAV pathogenesis and suggest a role of S2 in optimizing the host cell environment to promote viral dissemination and replication. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
“Background Excessive expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been demonstrated in asthmatic airway epithelia and in nasal epithelia from animal models of allergic rhinitis (AR), but the evidence of expression of TSLP in nasal
epithelial cells (NECs) of patients with AR is lacking. We aimed to investigate the expression of TSLP in NECs of patients with mugwort sensitive-seasonal Selleck XMU-MP-1 AR and determine whether it is associated with severity of symptoms and the number of infiltrated eosinophils in nasal mucosa.\n\nMethods NECs specimens were obtained by scraping with plastic curettes from the nasal inferior turbinates of patients with mugwort pollen sensitive-seasonal AR (n=22) and nonallergic controls (n=11) during last peak mugwort pollen https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Adrucil(Fluorouracil).html season. The severity of nasal symptom was assessed using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). In addition, serum mugwort pollen IgE levels were tested from each patient. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed to test the messenger RNA (mRNA) of TSLP in the NECs. Furthermore,
immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was scored to evaluate the expression of TSLP and eosinophil cell count was made by May-Grunwald/Giemsa staining. The correlation between expression of TSLP and all other parameters was analyzed in this study.\n\nResults The mRNA level of TSLP was significantly increased in NECs of patients with AR compared with the nonallergic control group (P <0.05). In addition, IHC results showed that expression of TSLP in NECs from patients with AR was up-regulated which was correlated with VAS score (r=0.598; P <0.05) and nasal eosinophils count (r=0.702; P <0.05), but it was unrelated with mugwort pollen specific IgE level.\n\nConclusions These preliminary findings indicate a potential
relationship between TSLP expression, severity of symptoms and nasal eosinophils count in pathogenesis of AR, but TSLP expression did Nirogacestat chemical structure not correlate with mugwort pollen specific IgE level. The elevated expression of TSLP might play a critical role in local atopical responses of AR. In the future, the TSLP has the potential to be one of the most important molecular markers for AR diagnoses and assessment. Chin Med J 2009;122(19):2303-2307″
“Efficient utilization of saline land for food cultivation can increase agricultural productivity and rural income. To obtain information on the salt tolerance/susceptibility of wild chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), the influence of salinity (0-260 mM NaCl) on chicory seed germination and that of two salinity levels of irrigation water (100 and 200 mM NaCl) on plant growth, antioxidative enzyme activity, and accumulation of proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated. The trials were performed outdoors, in pots placed under a protective glass covering, for two consecutive years. Seeds showed a high capacity to germinate in saline conditions.
\n\nMethods: We used registry data derived from the University of California Davis Health System’s electronic medical record system to identify patients with diabetes mellitus from a network of 13 primary care clinics in the greater Sacramento area. This information was converted to a database www.selleckchem.com/products/bromosporine.html file for use in the GIS software. Geocoding was performed and after excluding those who had unknown home addresses we matched 8528 unique patient
records with their respective home addresses.\n\nSocioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the Geolytics, Inc. (East Brunswick, NJ), a provider of US Census Bureau data, with 2008 estimates and projections. Patient, socioeconomic, and demographic data were then joined to a single database. We conducted regression analysis assessing A1c level based on each patient’s buy Quisinostat demographic and laboratory characteristics and their neighborhood
characteristics (socioeconomic status [SES] quintile). Similar analysis was done for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.\n\nResults: After excluding ineligible patients, the data from 7288 patients were analyzed. The most notable findings were as follows: There was, there was found an association between neighborhood SES and A1c. SES was not associated with low-density lipoprotein control.\n\nConclusion: GIS methodology can assist primary care physicians and provide guidance for disease management programs. It can also help health systems in their mission to improve the health of a community. Our analysis found that neighborhood SES was a barrier to optimal glucose control but not to lipid control. This research provides an example of a useful application of GIS analyses applied to large data sets now available in electronic medical records. (J Am Board Fam Med 2010;23:88-96.)”
“Self-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on n-Si(100) substrate by RF sputtering techniques. The NRs are uniformly grown on 2-inch wafer along  direction. Single-crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO NRs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The average diameter, height, and density of NRs are found 48 nm, 750 nm, and
1.26 x 10(10) cm(-2), respectively. MI-503 solubility dmso The current-voltages (I-V) characteristics of ZnO NRs/Si heterojunction (HJ) were studied in the temperature range of 120-300 K and it shows a rectifying behavior. Barrier height (phi(B)) and ideality factor (eta) were estimated from thermionic emission model and found to be highly temperature dependent in nature. Richardson constant (A*) was evaluated using Richardson plot of ln(I-o/T-2) versus q/kT plot by linear fitting in two temperature range 120-180K and 210-300 K. Large deviation in Richardson constant from its theoretical value of n-Si indicates the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at HJ. Double Gaussian distribution of barrier height with thermionic equation gives mean barrier heights of 0.55 +/- 0.01 eV and 0.86 +/- 0.
Furthermore, the addition of Telaprevir significantly alters the dynamics and relationships between innate immune biomarkers and treatment effects and outcome.”
“We report on a systematical study of the structure, magnetism, and magnetotransport behavior of the hexagonal MnNiGa films deposited on thermally PF-03084014 oxidized Si (001) substrates by magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffractions reveal that all the films deposited at different temperatures crystallized in hexagonal
Ni2In-type structure (space group P6(3)/mmc). Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the surface morphology of the films varies with deposition temperature, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows compositions of the films selleck products remain nearly
unchanged, independent of the deposition temperature. Magnetic measurements indicate that all films are ferromagnetic and exhibit a magnetic anisotropy behavior. The magnetoresistance (MR) exhibits a negative temperature-and field-dependent behavior. The possible origin of the negative MR is discussed. Furthermore, we found that the Hall effect is dominated by an anomalous Hall effect (AHE) only due to skew scattering independent of the deposition temperature of films. Moreover, the anomalous Hall resistivity presents a non-monotonously temperature-dependent behavior. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“BACKGROUND. Patients with localized esophageal cancer (LEG) have diverse outcomes (post-therapy pathologic response, disease-free survival [DFS], and overall survival [OS]) after preoperative chemoradiation (P-CTRT), dictated also by inherent molecular heterogeneity. Whether the type of therapy influences the outcomes remains largely unanswered. It is hypothesized that induction chemotherapy (IC) or the type of cytotoxics used would not influence patient outcomes.\n\nMETHODS. In this retrospective analysis, consecutive patients with LEC who had P-CTRT were analyzed. Data were collected
regarding age, sex, baseline clinical stage, location, type of cytotoxics, post-therapy pathology, DFS, and OS. ATM/ATR inhibitor IC and the type of cytotoxics used were found to be correlated with DIPS, OS, and post-therapy pathologic response.\n\nRESULTS. A total of 180 patients with LEC (119 had IC before P-CTRT, all had received 5-fluorouracil, 87 had received a taxane, and 57 had received a platinol) were analyzed. The median survival (MS) of all patients was 57.7 months and the 3-year and 5-year OS rates were 65.4% and 46.5%, respectively. The type of therapy appeared to have no influence on the outcome: IC versus no IC (P =.58) or platinol versus taxane versos platinol pins taxane (P =.63). Similarly, the type of pathologic: response was not found to be influenced by IC (P =.18) or the type of cytotoxics used (P =.42). The data were similar for DFS.\n\nCONCLUSIONS.
Phenol-formaldehyde mixtures were impossible to detoxify by heterogeneous photocatalysis at any of the studied concentrations. Treatments using the Fenton reaction were able to degrade concentrations above 1000 mg L-1, though the use of a reagent such as peroxide makes it a costly technique. The efficiency of the biological aerated filter (BAF) mainly depended on initial concentration and toxicity, with
removal rates of 3.08 and 0.26 g L-1 d(-1) obtained for phenol and formaldehyde, respectively. Taking into account the results obtained for the treatment of complex phenol-formaldehyde mixtures, the best combination of techniques for the treatment of concentrations found in the industrial wastewater studied in this click here paper was the Fenton + BAF technique which was able to detoxify phenol-formaldehyde
concentrations (1:1) of 1000 mg L-1. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We present Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the IR-induced CI + H-2 (v = 1) – bigger than HC1 + H reaction in a parahydrogen (pH(2)) matrix aimed at distinguishing between two proposed reactions mechanisms; direct-IR and vibron-mediated. The Cl atom reactants are produced via 355 nm in situ photolysis of a Cl-2 doped pH(2) matrix. After photolysis is complete, a long-pass IR filter in the FTIR beam is removed and we selleck products measure the ensuing IR-induced reaction kinetics using rapid scan FTIR spectroscopy. We follow both the decay of the Cl atom reactant and growth of the HCl product using the Cl spin-orbit (SO) + Q(1)(0) and HC1 R-1(0) transitions, respectively. We show the IR-induced reaction mechanism depends on the spectral profile of the IR radiation; for IR spectral profiles that have significant IR intensities between 4000 and 5000 cm(-1) we observe first-order kinetics that are assigned to a vibron-mediated mechanism and for spectral profiles that have significant IR intensities that include the Cl SO + Q1(0) transition near 5094 cm(-1) we observe bi-exponential kinetics that are dominated by the direct-IR mechanism at early reaction times. We can distinguish between the two
mechanisms using the observed kinetics. We investigate the reaction kinetics for different FTIR optical setups, for a range of sample this website conditions, and start and stop the IR-induced reaction to investigate the importance of secondary H atom reactions. We also study the IR-induced reaction in Br/Cl co-doped pH2 samples and show the presence of the Br atom quenches the vibron-mediated reaction kinetics presumably because the Bratoms serve as efficient vibron traps. This paper indicates that in a highly enriched pH2 matrix the H atoms that are produced by the IR-induced Cl atom reaction likely do not play a significant role in the measured reaction kinetics which implies these secondary H atom reactions are highly selective. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We demonstrate that the conformation of the substrate-translocating
pore loop is coupled to the nucleotide state of the cis subunit, which is transmitted to the neighboring subunit via a conserved but structurally distinct intersubunit-signaling pathway common to diverse AAA+ machines. Furthermore, we found that an engineered, disulfide cross-linked ClpB hexamer is fully functional biochemically, suggesting that ClpB deoligomerization is not required for protein disaggregation.”
“Expression Bcl-2 inhibitor of the Arabidopsis CGS1 gene that codes for cystathionine -synthase is feedback-regulated at the step of mRNA degradation in response to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). This regulation occurs during translation and involves AdoMet-induced temporal translation arrest prior to the mRNA degradation. Here, we have identified multiple
intermediates of CGS1 mRNA degradation with different 5 ends that are separated by approximately 30 nucleotides. Longer intermediates were found to be produced as the number of ribosomes loaded on mRNA was increased. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation experiments showed that the shortest mRNA degradation intermediate was associated with monosomes, whereas longer degradation intermediates were associated with multiple ribosomes. Immunoblot analyses revealed a ladder of premature polypeptides whose molecular weights corresponded to products of ribosomes in a stalled stack. An increase in smaller premature polypeptides was observed as the number of ribosomes loaded on mRNA increased. Sotrastaurin order These results show that AdoMet induces the stacking of ribosomes on CGS1 mRNA and that multiple mRNA degradation sites probably correspond to each stacked ribosome.”
“A novel bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province SHP099 manufacturer of South
Africa and the effect of culture conditions on the bioflocculant production was investigated. Analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA of the bacteria revealed 99% similarity to Cobetia sp. L222 and the sequence was deposited in GenBank as Cobetia sp. OAUIFE (accession number JF799092). Cultivation condition studies revealed that bioflocculant production was optimal with an inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH of 6.0, Mn2+ as the metal ion, and glucose as the carbon source. Metal ions, including Na+, K+, Li+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ stimulated bioflocculant production, resulting in flocculating activity of above 90%. This crude bioflocculant is thermally stable, with about 78% of its flocculating activity remaining after heating at 100 degrees C for 25 min. Analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed it to be an acidic extracellular polysaccharide.
Participants reported that 2-3.7% of patches
fell off and rated skin irritation as absent or mild for 92 95% of patches, according to site. Conclusion: Investigator- and participant-rated assessments of LNG/EE patch adhesiveness and irritation demonstrated a low incidence of patch detachment, skin irritation and pruritus. Implications statement: This secondary analysis of a phase 3 clinical trial of a new weekly low-dose LNG and EE contraceptive patch, which used assessment by both investigators and participants, observed a low incidence of skin irritation, pruritus and patch detachment. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Sepsis is a leading cause of death. Rapid and accurate identification of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance directly from blood Bafilomycin A1 in vivo culture could improve patient outcomes. The FilmArray (R) (FA; Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City. find more UT, USA) Blood Culture (BC) panel can identify >25 pathogens and 4 antibiotic resistance genes from positive blood cultures in 1 h. We compared a development version of the panel to conventional culture and susceptibility testing on 102 archived blood cultures from adults and children with bacteremia. Of 109 pathogens identified by culture, 95% were identified by FA. Among 111 prospectively collected blood cultures, the FA identified 84 (91%) of 92 pathogens covered by the panel. Among 25
Staphylococcus aureus and 21 Enterococcus species detected, FA identified all culture-proven methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The FA BC panel is an accurate method for the rapid identification of pathogens and resistance genes from blood culture. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 alpha and the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 are considered important inducers of mitochondrial biogenesis because in the nucleus they regulate transcription find protocol of nucleus-encoded mitochondrial genes. We demonstrate that PGC-1 alpha and SIRT1 are
also present inside mitochondria and are in close proximity to mtDNA. They interact with mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) as assessed by confocal microscopy analysis and by blue native-PAGE. Nucleoid purification allowed us to identify SIRT1 and PGC-1 alpha as proteins associated with native and cross-linked nucleoids, respectively. After mtDNA immunoprecipitation analysis, carried out on mitochondrial extracts, we found that PGC-1 alpha is present on the same D-loop region recognized by TFAM. Finally, by oligonucleotide pulldown assay, we found PGC-1 alpha and SIRT1 associated with the TFAM consensus sequence (human mitochondrial transcription factor-binding site H). The results obtained suggest that in mitochondria PGC-1 alpha and SIRT1 may function as their nuclear counterparts and represent the genuine factors mediating the cross-talk between nuclear and mitochondrial genome.
(Surg Obes Relat Dis 2010;6:373-376.) (C) 2010 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“The identification of cervical cancer patients at high risk of local recurrence is urgent to improve the selection of patients for more aggressive treatment. The immune contexture in human tumors has vital impact on clinical outcome. Our aim in the study was to establish a predictive model of local recurrence by assessing the prognostic significance of clinicopathologic features and five immune markers within the tumor microenvironment in cervical cancer. The
expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3, and IL-17 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue GDC-0994 cell line from 153 patients after radical resection for cervical cancer. Prognostic effects
of these immune markers and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Local recurrence was observed in 34 % patients (52/153). Independent predictors of tumor recurrence were lymph node status (P = 0.004), lymph-vascular space invasion (P = 0.012), and the number of intratumoral IL-17(+) cells (P = 0.003). Quisinostat mouse The risk of local recurrence was the highest in patients with lymph node positivity, presence of lymph-vascular space invasion, and low prevalent of intratumoral IL-17(+) cells (probability, 73 %; 5-year DFS, 19 %). A Cox model composed of these three features provided a significant higher diagnostic accuracy of local recurrence than each feature alone (P smaller than 0.05). Lymph node status, lymph node space invasion, and number of intratumoral IL-17(+) cells are three independent predictors for recurrence of cervical cancer. Their combination by a Cox model is highly predictive and may help to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.”
“The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due
to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid learn more to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks.