1) This topology was identical to the classification based on th

1). This topology was identical to the classification based on their morphology and habits [10], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22] and [23]. Pairwise distances are shown in Table S3. The UBE3 sequence dataset was employed for construction of the nucleotide molecular formulae (NMF). The 724 bp aligned sequence corresponds to the DNA tract from bases 15 to 738 of the entire sequence of the UBE3 fragment from the 5′ end and includes all the variable sites of this region ( Table 2; Fig. S1). The position number of each variable site used in the formula was determined according to the newly generated 724 bp-length sequence alignment.

The ten polymorphic base sites used in the NMF of the taxa for the genus Juglans are No. 42, 85, 125, 205, 227, 322, 457, 459, 595 and 663 ( Table 2; Fig. S1). For instance, “Nuclear_DNA_UBE3_cds” was used to refer to the coding region of the nuclear UBE3 gene employed in the NMF and “aln_724 bp” refers to the aligned Talazoparib sequence length (724 bp) of BMS-354825 in vivo the nine representative species/variety/cultivars

in Juglans L. As a result, “Nuclear_DNA_UBE3_cds_aln_724bp_ ” can be constructed as an NMF for molecularly characterizing the cultivar Juglans regia ‘Zha 343’, with the figure following the nucleotide character indicating the position of the corresponding polymorphic base site from the 5′ end of the aligned sequence [24]. The NMF can be constructed in a similar way for the rest of the samples of the genus Juglans and the outgroups. “Nuclear DNA_UBE3_cds_aln_724bp_” is omitted to save space in the description below. “Type ”, for example, in the following next taxonomic key, refers to the taxon/taxa with –typed base mutation, i.e., nucleotide A can be detected at base position 42 from the 5′ end in the UBE3 region. Other types of base mutation are indicated in the same way. As shown in Fig. 2, a novel taxonomic key based on nucleotide molecular formulae is constructed by which the molecular feature of each taxon is given. Plants of Juglans sect. Cardiocaryon are precious tree species for high quality wood production. J. mandshurica and J.cathayensis are closely related taxa in Juglans sect. Cardiocaryon.

J. mandshurica is mostly distributed in provinces of North and Northeast China, where the climate is colder. J. cathayensis is mainly distributed in warmer provinces of South and Southwest China [19], [20] and [23]. The four black walnut species of Juglans sect. Rhysocaryon are closely related with each other, with some presence in North America as well [18], [19], [20], [21], [22] and [23]. Members of Juglans sect. Juglans are economically important tree species for edible walnut production. The distribution of Juglans sigillata and J. sigillata ‘Lushui 1Hao’ is limited to Southwest China (mainly Yunnan Province) [19], [20] and [23]. J. sigillata ‘Lushui 1 Hao’ is a traditional local cultivar with an annual nut production of more than 1.0 × 108 kg. In contrast, the annual nut production of J.

Pancreatology is never boring! The authors disclosed no financial

Pancreatology is never boring! The authors disclosed no financial relationships relevant to this publication. “
“EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) is a very sensitive technique for establishing tissue diagnosis in patients

with suspected GI malignancies and periluminal CHIR-99021 in vitro lesions.1 and 2 Several factors determine the technical outcomes of an FNA procedure: location and nature of the lesion, presence of an on-site cytopathologist, and the experience of the endosonographer.3, 4 and 5 Studies have shown that more FNA passes are required to establish a definitive diagnosis in patients with pancreatic masses compared with other lesions, particularly in the absence of an on-site cytopathologist.6 However, routinely performing more than 5 passes in every patient with a pancreatic mass represents a substantial burden in

terms of procedural duration, need for adjunctive sedation, increased risk of complications, and, more importantly, use of additional needles per case. Although several studies have evaluated the technical aspects of an FNA procedure,7, 8 and 9 to our knowledge, no study has examined the relationship between technical outcomes and resource use. Given the increasing number of EUS procedures being performed and the need to use more than one needle in some patients because of technical Ivacaftor nmr failure,10 and 11 this study attempted to develop an algorithm with the objective of improving technical outcomes and optimizing resource use for FNA procedures and interventions. An algorithmic approach based on using specific needles for different routes during FNA or interventions improves the technical outcomes and resource use of EUS procedures. Given the lack of adequate data on resource use during EUS procedures, this study was Ureohydrolase executed in two phases: phase I for retrospective

data analysis to assess technical outcomes and resource use during EUS-FNA/interventions and phase II for prospective validation of an algorithm designed to improve technical outcomes and resource use. In both phases, we excluded patients who underwent sampling of more than one lesion in a single endoscopic session and those enrolled in clinical trials evaluating specific FNA needles. This involved retrospective analysis of all EUS-FNA procedures/interventions performed over a 7-month period from January to July 2010 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The EUS database was queried for patient demographics, procedural indications, lesion sampled, FNA route, type and number of needles used per procedure, diagnostic adequacy, and complications. All procedures were performed by two endosonographers who used the standard 19-gauge needles (EchoTip, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, NC) for interventions and the 22 or 25–gauge needles interchangeably for performing FNAs.

The animals receiving the hypercaloric diet also had access to st

The animals receiving the hypercaloric diet also had access to standard chow and water. The animals were weighed weekly, and the weight delta was defined as the difference between final and baseline weights. At the end of the experiment, the naso-anal length (cm) of the animals was measured to determine the Lee index. This index, which was adapted from Moura and Cols, corresponds to the ratio between the

cube root of the body weight (g) and the naso-anal length (cm) of the animals multiplied by 10 [21]. The liver, adrenal glands and specific adipose tissues (mesenteric, subcutaneous and visceral) were dissected manually and were weighed using a semi-analytical balance. The data were expressed as grams of tissue per 100 g of body weight (weight tissue/bodyweight × 100). The visceral adipose tissue weight included the perigonadal and retroperitoneal fat pads. The animals were Y-27632 solubility dmso killed by decapitation, and the blood and tissue samples were collected 24 h after the last session of restraint stress and after a 12-h fast. A trained practitioner performed the euthanasia. The trunk blood was collected and centrifuged for 5 min at 5000 × g at room temperature. This method was used to facilitate the collection of large volumes check details of blood serum for analysis. Importantly,

this model allows the determination of biochemical effects, including hormonal effects. The serum was frozen at −70 °C for subsequent analysis. The serum corticosterone levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (Catalog No. 900-097, Assay Designs, Inc., USA), and the data are expressed as ng/mL. The serum leptin levels were measured using a commercial ever Linco ELISA Kit (Catalog No. 00EZRL-83, Linco Research, USA), and the data are expressed as ng/mL. The concentration of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL and TAG was measured spectrophotometrically using Bioliquid kits (Laborclin, Paraná, Brazil), and the data are expressed as mg/dL.

The VLDL and LDL values were calculated using the Friedewald equation (VLDL = TAG/5, LDL total cholesterol − (HDL–VLDL) [37]. The results were expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (S.E.M.). The baseline weight of the animals was compared between the groups using one-way ANOVA. The data and interactions were evaluated using two-way ANOVA (diet, stress, diet × stress) followed by Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons when necessary and two-way ANOVA for repeated measures (effect of time, diet, stress, time × stress, time × diet, time × stress × diet, and diet × stress interactions) followed by Bonferroni correction when necessary. The between-group differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. The results of two-way ANOVA for repeated measures demonstrated an effect of time (F(5,30) = 77.863, P < 0.05) but no effect of stress (F(1,30) = 2.947, P > 0.05) or of hypercaloric diet (F(1,30) = 2.447, P > 0.05) ( Fig. 1, Panel A).

For instance, expanding imaging genomics into the analysis

For instance, expanding imaging genomics into the analysis 5-FU cost of gliomas could focus on the intra-tumoral heterogeneity in high- and low-grade lesions. Correlation of quantitative imaging parameters with locus-specific gene expression will help identify not just a genomic basis for specific

imaging phenotypes, but pave the way to monitor any phenotypic changes occurring during the treatment/observation phase with serial imaging, using imaging as surrogate markers, as surveillance tools. Tumor heterogeneity is multidimensional. For example, within a tumor, there can be genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity; differences in microenvironments; phenotype differences; heterogeneity arising over time; and heterogeneity between primary tumor and metastases. Imaging phenotype can be characterized by one or more spatially registered imaging modalities (e.g., CT, PET, molecular imaging, MR, and ultrasound). Imaging is the only technique that can characterize the whole tumor as well as any pertinent

surrounding tissues; it is non-invasive and can be repeated over time (assuming issues of radiation dose, where applicable, are addressed). Specific attention should be paid to “serial imaging,” to Galunisertib mw understand molecular mechanisms behind treatment success/failure and changes in spatial/temporal/habitats that accompany treatment, and to observe tumor evolution over time (e.g., resistance development). Image analysis methods to predict and detect the emergence of resistance, correlate with genomic heterogeneity, and

identify homogeneous subtypes within a heterogeneous tumor would be invaluable. Within the context of tumor heterogeneity, microscopic images represent an extremely valuable resource of disease phenotype data. Visual analysis of microscopic images is considered the gold standard diagnostic modality for virtually all cancer types [47] and [48]. Importantly, a large amount SPTBN5 of cell type-specific and tissue region-specific biomedical knowledge encoded in morphological data is not directly recoverable from -omics data, which requires destroying tissue structure prior to extraction of molecular analytes and molecular profiling. This suggests that there may be value in integrating molecular and morphological phenotype data to take advantage of the unique strengths of each data type (depicted in Figure 10). Similarly, within the context of tumor heterogeneity, image-guided (IG) semi-automated needle core biopsy methods will prove to be very important. These IG methods, capable of extracting 30 + mg tumor tissue samples suitable for micro-fluidic -omic analysis, are now available, but have not yet been widely deployed. Such targeted tumor sampling, coupled with increased fresh frozen biospecimens pioneered by TCGA, could extend the reliability of -omic sampling and analysis procedures. Many individual comprehensive cancer centers are currently engaged in this type of biospecimen harvesting but further standardization is required.

MCs were also detected in flounder (Paralichthys


MCs were also detected in flounder (Paralichthys

olivaceus) and prawn (Metapenaeus joyneri), and the batellarid snail, Batillaria cumingii, collected at station C2 was highly contaminated. The pollution of MCs extends beyond the hydrosphere into the surrounding land ecosystem. MCs were also found in this website chiromonid flies (primarily Microchironomus tabarui, along with a small number Chironomus plmosus), as well as their predators, the long-jawed spider (Tetragnatha praedonia) and the dragonfly (Pantala flavescens). Chiromonids and spiders were collected on an overpass in the center of the dike road. Dragonflies were collected around the north drainage gate. We have directly observed chiromonids being eaten by the spiders and dragonflies. In addition, Metabolism inhibitor the levels of MCs per dry weight were 5.2 and 7.6 times higher in spiders and dragonflies than in their chiromonid prey, indicative of bioaccumulation within these insects ( Table 6). The tidal flat of Isahaya Bay lost as part of the reclamation project covered ∼25.5 km2, ∼6.5 km2 of which was converted into farmland, with the remaining area occupied by a 20 km2 reservoir. The mean depth of the reservoir is 1.4 m, with a total water volume of ∼29 million tons (Water quality committee of Isahaya Bay reservoir, 2007). However, these figures are likely to be out of date, with the actual depth of the reservoir significantly reduced due to sedimentation that has occurred since its creation in 1997. Core sampling

at station R3 revealed the strata of the tidal flat, which includes a shell and coarse sand layer underneath the soft bottom sediment at depth of ∼20–40 cm. Although drainage of the reservoir is a routine event, the combined length of Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) the drainage gates is only 250 m for a dike of 7 km, and does not appear to disturb sedimentation due to rivers or by particulate organic matter produced within the reservoir. However, the shallow

depth of the reservoir leads to considerable stirring of the bottom sediment by the wind, slowing the sedimentation rate. The high concentration of fine sediment in the reservoir (d50 ∼4 μm, Umehara, unpublished data), combined with the stirring effects of the wind, leads to extremely low transparency (∼15 cm) at all times of the day. These effects significantly limit stratification and hypoxia in the bottom layer of the reservoir, even during daytime hours. The extremely low transparency creates a very thin layer of water receiving sufficient light intensity to support eukaryotic phytoplankton, limited by the lack of light below 30–40 cm, and photoinhibition on the surface. On the other hand, prokaryotic cyanobacteria are well adapted to the strong light on the surface of the water, which may account for their dominance within the reservoir. Total displacement from the southern and northern drainage gates from 1998 to 2012 was 5.66 billion tons, with an additional 100,000 tons of compulsory drainage from the center of the embankment every day.

In addition, the gene(s) controlling stem solidness

was m

In addition, the gene(s) controlling stem solidness

was mapped based on an F2 population derived from a cross between a solid stemmed variety and a hollow stemmed one. The result will be helpful for molecular marker assisted selection (MAS) for solid stem in wheat breeding. Solid stemmed wheat line Xinongshixin (XNSX), hollow stemmed Line 3159, the F1 and F2 populations from cross XNSX/Line 3159 and Chinese Spring (CS) were planted at Changping Experimental Station, CAS, Beijing, China. Plant samples were collected from early April (three-leaf stage) selleck compound to late June (mature stage). To evaluate stem solidness, more than 10 stems were randomly selected at post-anthesis and were cross-sectionally cut at the center of each internode. The level of pith solidness was rated

on a previously established score system [12] ranging from 1 to 5 (1 for hollow and 5 for solid). All samples were collected from main tillers. The internodes on samples were numbered consecutively from the base to the top of the stem. Sections were cut at the center of each internode and stained with either phloroglucine-HCl or Calcoflour (Sigma) according to the procedure described in our previous study [13]. The following morphological characteristics were measured and analyzed using a statistical software package attached to fluorescence microscope (Axioskop 40 with UV Ku-0059436 cell line excitation, Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 ZEISS), i.e., outer and inner stem diameters, area of stem wall, radius of stem wall (RSW), width of stem wall (WOSW), area of vascular bundles (AOVB), area of transverse section (AOT), width of the mechanical tissue layer (WOMT), number of vascular bundles (NOVB), number of large and small vascular bundles (NLVB and NSVB), weight of the three lower internodes (WOL), and stem length. Carbohydrate contents (lignin and cellulose) were assayed according to the methods described previously [13], [14] and [15]. Three internodes from the bottom upwards

collected from stems were ground to fine powder in liquid nitrogen using a mortar and a pestle. Lignin content was assayed using the methods described by Kirk and Obst [16] and histochemical detection (the Wiesner reaction) following established protocols [17]. For cellulose staining, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-embedded sections (10 μm) were treated with a 0.005% aqueous solution of Calcoflour (fluorescent brightener 28, Sigma) for 2 min and then observed with a fluorescence microscope (Axioskop 40, ZEISS). Lodging resistance was ranked according to the measured resistance of stems to pushing, which was carried out on the bottom part of the stem following Kashiwagi and Ishimaru [18]. The data were analyzed by multiple ANOVA with 95% confidence limits using mean values measured for each genotype.

We reviewed consecutive, prevalence, clinical CT lung screening e

We reviewed consecutive, prevalence, clinical CT lung screening examinations performed at our institution from January 2012 through May 2014. To qualify for screening, individuals had to satisfy the NCCN high-risk criteria for lung cancer, be asymptomatic, have

physician orders for CT lung screening, be free of lung cancer for ≥5 years, and have no known metastatic disease 3 and 5. All CT lung screening examinations were performed on ≥64-row multidetector CT scanners (LightSpeed VCT and Discovery VCT [GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Sirolimus cost Wisconsin]; Somatom Definition [Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany]; iCT [Philips Medical Systems, Andover, Massachusetts]) at 100 kV and 30 to 100 mA depending on the scanner and the availability of iterative reconstruction software. Axial images

were obtained at 1.25- to 1.5-cm thickness with 50% overlap and reconstructed with both soft tissue and lung kernels. Axial maximum-intensity projections (16 × 2.5 mm) and coronal and sagittal multiplanar reformatted images were reconstructed and used for interpretation. Original image interpretation was performed by radiologists specifically trained and credentialed in CT lung screening using a structured buy Olaparib reporting system and the NCCN guidelines nodule follow-up algorithms 3 and 5. Positive results required the identification of a solid, noncalcified nodule ≥4 mm or a nonsolid nodule ≥5 mm for which >2-year stability had not been established [5]. Studies positive for solid nodules <6 mm, nonsolid nodules <2 cm, and positive nodules stable for >3 months but <2 years were recategorized ID-8 as benign to estimate the hypothetical ACR Lung-RADS positive rate and PPV in our cohort. Cases reclassified as benign would be considered false negative if cancer was diagnosed within 12 months of the baseline examination. For both ACR Lung-RADS and the original interpretation, solid and part-solid nodules >8 mm, growing nodules, and nonsolid nodules with growing solid components were categorized as “suspicious.” All other positive nodules were categorized as “probably benign.” Mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes measuring >1 cm in the

short axis in the absence of pulmonary nodules and findings suspicious for infection or inflammation (most commonly areas of tree-in-bud nodularity) not currently considered positive under ACR Lung-RADS were treated as incidental findings under both schemas. From January 2012 through May 2014, a total of 2,180 high-risk patients underwent clinical prevalence CT lung screening examinations (Table 1). Five hundred seventy-seven of these 2,180 (26%) were patients from outside our institution for whom clinical follow-up after the prevalence CT lung screening examination was not available during this retrospective review. Application of ACR Lung-RADS had the following impact in our specific patient cohort. Three hundred seventy of 2,180 examinations (17.

The study included 364 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pr

The study included 364 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor samples retrospectively collected from a cohort of EC patients who were operated in the Department of Gynaecology, Gynaecological Oncology and Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdańsk (Gdańsk, Poland) between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was primarily treated by surgery, with the possible option of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy administration. The inclusion criteria were operable

EC (stage IVB patients underwent cytoreductive surgery) confirmed by histologic examination and a signed consent form. The study was accepted by the Independent Ethics Committee of the Medical University of Gdańsk (NKEBN/269/2009, date: 14 September PARP inhibitor 2009). Procedures involving human subjects were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. The tumor samples included all stages of endometrial carcinoma, from stage IA to IVB, as distinguished by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) in 2009 [7]. We analyzed all primary carcinomas of the uterine corpus, separating them into endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors. The latter included serous, clear GSK2126458 datasheet cell, mucinous, mixed, squamous cell, and undifferentiated carcinomas [8]. Metastases included lymph node and distant metastases. The patients’ characteristics are summarized in Table 1. The median age was 63 (range, 26-89 years). Patients

with a body mass index higher than 30 were classified as obese [9]. A survival analysis was performed for 362 (99.5%) patients. After a median follow-up of

72.5 months (range, 0-158), 107 (29.4%) patients had died. The last follow-up data were collected in September 2013. The study was performed in accordance with the REcommendations for Tumor MARKer Prognostic Studies (REMARK) criteria [10]. Samples were collected by surgical excision before any systemic treatment and were fixed in 10% (vol/vol) neutral buffered formalin for up to 24 hours, dehydrated in 70% ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. FFPE tissue blocks were stored at room temperature for up to 14 years. The percentage of tumor cells in each FFPE specimen was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining reviewed by a certified pathologist. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from FFPE surgical Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase resection tumor specimens and control samples. Four 1.5-mm-diameter cores from each tumor were obtained from the most representative areas (well-preserved fragments of invasive carcinoma, without necrosis, autolysis, and squamous metaplasia) using a tissue-arraying instrument (MTA-I; Beecher Instruments, Sun Prairie, WI), and then reembedded in microarray blocks. Punches of normal tissues were added to each array to introduce built-in internal controls to the system. Consecutive 4-μm-thick TMA sections were cut and placed on charged polylysine-coated slides (Superfrost Plus; BDH, Braunschweig, Germany) for subsequent IHC analysis.

“Overfishing and overcapacity are costing the world’s fish

“Overfishing and overcapacity are costing the world’s fishery sector dearly, reducing resource rent—the surplus after fishing costs have been subtracted from revenue—by

Galunisertib an estimated US$50 billion a year according to two recent studies based on different methodologies [1] and [2]. Meanwhile, the gap between global revenue and costs narrows [1], with global revenue from marine fisheries at approximately US$95 billion [3], [4], [5] and [6] and the total variable cost of fishing estimated at US$92 billion (both in real 2005 dollars) [7]. Excess subsidies, by one estimate topping US$27 billion per year currently [8], largely fuel this cycle of dysfunction. Against this backdrop, the human consumption of fish has been rising, up 9% from 2002 to 2006 alone [9]. To support this, overall fish production from both capture fisheries and aquaculture continues to climb, reaching a level in 2006 more than seven times that recorded for 1950 [9]. The phenomenal growth of aquaculture is responsible

for the recent growth, PD-1 inhibiton and nearly half of the world’s food fish supply is farmed at present [9]. But just as the overall rise in fish production hides the stagnation in catches from the world’s capture fisheries over the past two decades [6] and [9], global catch trends mask successive declines in regional stocks [10] and the geographic spread of overfishing in time [11] and [12]. Indeed, the roughly fivefold increase in marine fishery catches from 1950 to the late 1980s when catches peaked was facilitated by the expansion into and exploitation Cytidine deaminase of new fishing areas, from the North Atlantic and Western Pacific coastlines southward and into the high seas [12]. Defining thresholds of unsustainable fishing across the diverse marine ecosystems and fisheries of the world is an uncertain task and a matter of lively debate (e.g., [13] and [14]). In the absence of scientific stock assessments for all commercial species, studies have evaluated overfishing at a global scale by extrapolating

from available stock assessments and research surveys [9], [15] and [16]; using catch trends as an indicator of stock biomass levels [17]; combining catch data with primary productivity levels [12] and [18] or empirical stock-assessment based relationships [19]; or some combination of these methods [20]. Despite ongoing controversy regarding the interpretation of data sources, consensus is emerging; according to several recent assessments, up to one-third of global fishery stocks are now overexploited or collapsed [9], [11], [15], [16], [19] and [21]. These assessments document the geographic spread and intensification of overfishing from the 1950s to the 1990s, with the proportion of depleted stocks stable since the 1990s in some analyses [9] and [21] and increasing at different rates in others [17], [19] and [20].

The corresponding roasting times and temperatures are listed in T

The corresponding roasting times and temperatures are listed in Table 1. A Shimadzu IRAffinity-1 FTIR Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, Japan) with a DLATGS (Deuterated Triglycine Sulfate Doped with L-Alanine) detector was used in the measurements, all performed in a dry controlled atmosphere at room temperature (20 ± 0.5 °C). Diffuse reflectance (DR) measurements were performed with a Shimadzu sampling accessory (DRS8000A). Each sample was mixed with KBr and 23 mg of this mixture were placed inside

the sample port. Pure KBr was employed as reference material (background spectrum). All spectra were recorded within a range of 4000–400 cm−1 with 4 cm−1 resolution and 20 scans, and submitted to background subtraction. The spectra were also truncated to 2500 data points in the range GSK-3 beta phosphorylation mTOR inhibitor of 3200–700 cm−1, to eliminate noise readings present in the upper and lower ends of the spectra. Preliminary tests were performed in order to evaluate the effect of particle size (D < 0.15 mm; 0.15 mm < D < 0.25 mm; 0.25 mm < D < 0.35 mm) and sample/KBr mass ratio (1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 g/100 g) on the quality of the obtained spectra. The conditions that provided the best quality spectra (higher intensity and lower noise interference)

were D < 0.15 mm and 10 g/100 g sample/KBr mass ratio. In order to improve sample discrimination, the following data pretreatment techniques were evaluated: (0) no additional Oxalosuccinic acid processing (raw data), (1) mean centering, (2) normalization, (3) baseline correction employing two (3200 and 700 cm−1) or three (3200, 2000 and 700 cm−1) points, (4) first derivatives and (5) second derivatives. Mean centering was calculated by subtracting the average absorbance value of a given spectrum from each data point. Normalization was calculated by dividing the difference between the response at each data point and the minimum absorbance value by the difference between the maximum and minimum absorbance values. Such spectra pretreatments are

suggested as a means to remove redundant information and enhance sample-to-sample differences ( Wang et al., 2009). Baseline correction and derivative transformations usually compensate for baseline offset between samples and also tend to reduce instrument drift effects. Using the DR spectra (raw or normalized) and its derivatives as chemical descriptors, pattern recognition (PR) methods (PCA and LDA) were applied in order to establish whether roasted coffee husks and roasted corn could be discriminated from roasted coffee samples. For PCA analysis, data matrices were constructed so that each row corresponded to a sample and each column represented the spectra datum at a given wavenumber, after processing as previously described. LDA models were constructed based on the data that presented the best performance (group separation) in the PCA analysis.