15, 95% CI: 1 06-1 24) In contrast, emotional closeness and soci

15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.24). In contrast, emotional closeness and social closeness were not associated with anal sex. Condom use during anal sex was uncommon, and did not vary according to partner or relationship characteristics.\n\nConclusions: Our findings support the need for HIV prevention interventions that target anal sex among heterosexuals, particularly in drug-using populations residing

in neighborhoods with elevated levels of HIV prevalence.”
“As many people struggle JPH203 order with maintenance of weight loss, the study of successful weight loss maintainers (SWLM) can yield important insights into factors contributing to weight loss maintenance. However, little research has examined how SWLM differ

from people who are obese or normal weight Selleck CA3 (NW) in brain response to orosensory stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine if SWLM exhibit different brain responses to orosensory stimulation. Brain response to 1-min orosensory stimulation with a lemon lollipop was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging among 49 participants, including SWLM (n = 17), NW (n = 18), and obese (n = 1 4) controls. Significant brain responses were observed in nine brain regions, including the bilateral insula, left inferior frontal gyrus, left putamen, and other sensory regions. All regions also exhibited significant attenuation of this response over 1 min. The SWLM exhibited greater response compared with the other groups in all brain regions. Findings suggest that the response to orosensory stimulation peaks within 40 s and attenuates significantly between 40 and 60 s in regions associated with sensation, reward, and inhibitory control. Greater reactivity among the SWLM suggests that greater sensory reactivity to orosensory stimulation, increased

anticipated reward, and subsequently greater inhibitory processing are associated with weight loss maintenance.”
“Genes that enable crops to limit Na+ accumulation in shoot tissues represent potential sources of salinity tolerance for breeding. In barley, the HvNax4 locus lowered shoot GSK690693 cell line Na+ content by between 12% and 59% (g(-1) DW), or not at all, depending on the growth conditions in hydroponics and a range of soil types, indicating a strong influence of environment on expression. HvNax4 was fine-mapped on the long arm of barley chromosome 1H. Corresponding intervals of similar to 200 kb, containing a total of 34 predicted genes, were defined in the sequenced rice and Brachypodium genomes. HvCBL4, a close barley homologue of the SOS3 salinity tolerance gene of Arabidopsis, co-segregated with HvNax4. No difference in HvCBL4 mRNA expression was detected between the mapping parents. However, genomic and cDNA sequences of the HvCBL4 alleles were obtained, revealing a single Ala111Thr amino acid substitution difference in the encoded proteins.

The interventions

in these studies were generally complex

The interventions

in these studies were generally complex, but all involved the use of a severity score to identify low-risk patients. Overall, a significantly larger numbers of patients were treated in the community with these interventions (OR 2.31, 95% CI 2.03-2.63). The interventions appear safe, with no significant differences in Etomoxir clinical trial mortality (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.59-1.17), hospital readmissions (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.82-1.42) or patient satisfaction with care (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.97-1.49) between the intervention and control groups. There was insufficient data regarding quality of life or return to usual activities. All studies had significant limitations.\n\nThe available evidence suggests that interventions to increase the proportion of patients treated in the community are safe, effective and acceptable to patients.”
“Numerous components and pathways are involved in the complex interplay between cancer cells and their environment. The family of glycophosphoproteins comprising osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, dentin sialophosphoprotein and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein-small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs)-are emerging as important players in many stages of cancer progression.

From their detection in various human cancers to the demonstration of their key functional roles during malignant transformation, invasion and metastasis, the SIBLINGs are proteins with potential as diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as new therapeutic targets.”
“The cerebellar selleck chemicals cortical circuit of mammals develops via a series of magnificent cellular events in the postnatal stage of development to accomplish Selleckchem Raf inhibitor the formation of functional circuit architectures. The contribution of genetic factors is thought to be crucial to cerebellar development. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the underlying transcriptome during development to understand the genetic blueprint of the cerebellar cortical circuit. In this review, we introduce the profiling of large numbers of spatiotemporal gene expression data obtained by developmental time-series microarray analyses and in situ hybridization

cellular mRNA mapping, and the creation of a neuroinformatics database called the Cerebellar Development Transcriptome Database. Using this database, we have identified thousands of genes that are classified into various functional categories and are expressed coincidently with related cellular developmental stages. We have also suggested the molecular mechanisms of cerebellar development by functional characterization of several identified genes (Cupidin, p130Cas, very-KIND, CAPS2) responsible for distinct cellular events of developing cerebellar granule cells. Taken together, the gene expression profiling during the cerebellar development demonstrates that the development of cerebellar cortical circuit is attributed to the complex but orchestrated transcriptome.

“In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), jasmonate is a key

“In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), jasmonate is a key signal required for stamen and pollen maturation and thus for male fertility. Using transcriptional profiling, we have previously identified a set of 13 transcription factors that are proposed to be involved in controlling jasmonate responses in stamens. This finding suggests that a transcriptional cascade regulates the many developmental and biochemical pathways required to ensure fertility; however, the organization of this cascade is currently not understood. Here, we provide a genetic characterization of the role of MYB108 and map its relationship

to MYB21 and MYB24, two other transcription factors involved in

the jasmonate response in Arabidopsis stamens. Transcriptional profiling and analysis of plants expressing a MYB108:GUS fusion protein demonstrated that MYB108 expression PKC412 is largely confined to sporophytic tissues of the stamen. Three allelic myb108 mutants exhibited reduced male fertility that was AL3818 manufacturer associated with delayed anther dehiscence, reduced pollen viability, and decreased fecundity relative to wild type. These phenotypes were all found to be exacerbated in myb108 myb24 double mutants, which also had shorter stamen filaments. Measurements of MYB108 transcript levels in wild-type and mutant flowers showed that expression of this gene is strongly dependent

on MYB21. Taken together, our results indicate that MYB108 and MYB24 have overlapping functions and act downstream of MYB21 in a transcriptional cascade that mediates selleck chemicals llc stamen and pollen maturation in response to jasmonate.”
“Purpose: To describe the efficacy and safety of using a single corneal graft for 2 different ocular surgeries, Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in one patient and coverage of a glaucoma drainage device tube in another patient.\n\nMaterials and Methods: The records of 12 consecutive patients who underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation using the anterior lamella of a donor cornea that had been previously used for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty were reviewed.\n\nResults: Nine eyes (75%) had superotemporal Ahmed valve implantation and 3 eyes (25%) had inferotemporal implantation. No intraoperative complications were encountered in any of these cases. During postoperative follow-up there were no graft rejections, wound dehiscences, tube exposures, or any glaucoma drainage device-related complications. In 1 patient, graft thinning was noticed 12 months after surgery, but without erosion of the conjunctiva or exposure of the tube. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) before surgery was 32.8 +/- 9.3 mm Hg. The mean postoperative IOPs were 13.

The mechanisms involved in long-distance trafficking of FT/FTL2 r

The mechanisms involved in long-distance trafficking of FT/FTL2 remain to be elucidated. In this study, we identified the critical motifs on both FT and FTL2 required for cell-to-cell trafficking through mutant analyses using a zucchini yellow mosaic virus expression vector. Western blot analysis, performed on phloem sap collected from just beneath the vegetative apex of C.moschata plants, established that all mutant proteins tested retained the ability to enter the phloem translocation stream. However, immunolocalization see more studies revealed that a number of these FTL2/FT mutants were defective

in the post-phloem zone, suggesting that a regulation mechanism for FT trafficking exists in the post-phloem unloading step. The selective movements of FT/FTL2 were further observed by microinjection and trichome rescue studies, which revealed that FT/FTL2 has the ability to dilate

plasmodesmata microchannels during the process of cell-to-cell trafficking, and various mutants were compromised in their capacity to traffic through plasmodesmata. Based on these findings, a model is presented to account for the mechanism by which FT/FTL2 enters the phloem translocation stream and subsequently exits the phloem and enters the apical tissue, where it initiates the vegetative to floral transition.”
“Antibiotic use in the treatment of respiratory QNZ tract infections is common in primary care. The European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC programme), collecting data from 35 countries, showed that antibiotic use was highest in southern European countries. Increased antibiotic consumption has been shown by numerous ecological studies drug discovery to contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in streptococci. A study comparing outpatient antibiotic consumption in the USA showed it to be similar to that in southern European countries, but macrolides, particularly azithromycin, are among the first-line agents prescribed in the USA for respiratory infections. In Europe, patients are more likely to receive a beta-lactam;

and when a macrolide is indicated, clarithromycin is more likely to be prescribed than azithromycin. Streptococci resistance to macrolides can be acquired via two mechanisms: by the mef gene, which encodes for the efflux pump mechanism, producing low to moderate resistance, or the erm gene (post-transcriptional modification of the bacterial ribosomal unit), resulting in high resistance. Macrolide resistance is mediated by erm(B) and mef(A) alone or in combination. A surveillance study showed that mef was responsible for most of the macrolide resistance seen in the USA; a decrease in the number of isolates carrying mef(A) was associated with a doubling of the number of isolates carrying both mef(A) and erm(B).

Results The incidence of infection was 37 3% (n = 137): name

\n\nResults. The incidence of infection was 37.3% (n = 137): namely, surgical site (n = 4; 20.2%), blood stream (n = 64; 17.4%), pulmonary (n = 49; 13.4%), urinary system (n = 26; 7.1%). Significant risk factors within the first 30 days were as follows: deceased donor, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) >20, albumin level <2.8 g/dL, intraoperative erythrocyte transfusion >6 U, intraoperative fresh frozen plasma >12 U, bilioenteric anastomosis, postoperative

intensive care unit stay >6 days, and postoperative length of stay >21 days. Significant risk factors detected within the first 90 days were as follows: MELD >20, preoperative length of stay >7 days, reoperation, postoperative length MLN2238 inhibitor of intensive care unit stay >6 days, and postoperative length of stay >21 days. Variability was observed in risk factors according to localization of infection. As a result, except for MELD, type of donor, and biliary anastomosis, the others are preventable factors for early bacterial infection. In addition, the same risk factors showed variability this website according to the site of infection.”
“Objective\n\nTo evaluate cytologic diagnoses of dysbacteriosis and Gardnerella

inaction and to obtain insight into the diagnostic problems of Gardnerella.\n\nStudy Design\n\nOne hundred randomly selected samples of each of 3 diagnostic series were rescreened by 2 pathologists, resulting in 2 rescreening diagnoses and a consensus diagnosis. A smear was considered unequivocal when the original O code selleck products and the O code of the consensus diagnoses were equal and discordant when the flora diagnoses of the 2 pathologists differed.\n\nResults\n\nDiscordance was highest in the dysbacteriotic series (20%) and lowest in the healthy g-roup (4%). Unequivocal

diagnoses were established in 65% of the dysbacteriotic smears, 80% of the Gardnerella smears and 93% of the healthy smears. Misclassification of Gardnerella occurred in the presence of clusters of bacteria mixed with spermatozoa.\n\nConclusion\n\nBlue mountain cells in Gardnerella infection can be identified unequivocally in cervical smears. Because of the clinical importance of treating Gardnerella, such advantageous spin-offs of cervical screening should be exploited. (Acta Cytol 2009;53:389-395)”
“Objective: As compared to knee chondrocytes (KC), talar chondrocytes (TC) have superior synthetic activity and increased resistance to catabolic stimuli. We investigated whether these properties are maintained after TC are isolated and expanded in vitro.\n\nMethods: Human TC and KC from 10 cadavers were expanded in monolayer and then cultured in pellets for 3 and 14 days or in hyaluronan meshes (Hyaff (R)-11) for 14 and 28 days. Resulting tissues were assessed biochemically, histologically, biomechanically and by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

In the isotonic medium (300 mOsm), there was a significant differ

In the isotonic medium (300 mOsm), there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the SZ cell volumes and aspect ratios between intact cartilage samples and cartilage explants. Changes in cell volumes at both short-term (2 min) and long-term (2 h) time points after the hypotonic challenge (180 mOsm) were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the groups. Further, proteoglycan content was found to correlate significantly (r (2) = 0.63, p < 0.05) with the cell volume changes click here in cartilage

samples with intact surfaces. Collagen content did not correlate with cell volume changes. The results suggest that the biomechanical behaviour of chondrocytes following osmotic challenge is different in intact cartilage and in check details cartilage explant. This indicates that the mechanobiological responses of cartilage and cell signalling may be significantly

dependent on the integrity of the mechanical environment of chondrocytes.”
“Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on LM shear force and sensory attributes was determined using pens (n = 40) British x Continental crossbred steers randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: control; RH fed at 200 (RH 200) or 300 mg . steer(-1) . d(-1) (RH 300), or 400 mg . steer(-1) . d(-1) (RH 400) top-dressed for the final 30 d of feeding; or ZH fed at 7.5 mg/kg, beginning 23 d before slaughter with a 3-d withdrawal. Two replicates (pens) per treatment were represented in four blocks. Eighteen carcasses per pen were randomly selected and one 5-cm LM sample was removed from both carcass sides to be used for shear force and sensory evaluation. Samples were aged for 14 d, frozen at

-28.8 degrees C, and cut into 2.5-cm steaks. All steaks were cooked to an internal temperature of 71.1 degrees C before being evaluated for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), or being fed to trained sensory panelists. Increasing dose and potency of beta-agonist Combretastatin A4 chemical structure increased WBSF by 4 to 17% and SSF by 5 to 24% (P smaller than 0.05). Steaks from steers fed ZH had higher WBSF and SSF values compared with all other treatments (P smaller than 0.05), whereas steaks from controls and steers fed RH 200 were not different (P bigger than 0.05). Probability of steaks failing to meet shear force standards to be certified tender (WBSF smaller than 4.4 kg, SSF smaller than 20 kg) was increased from an initial probability of smaller than 0.06 in steaks from steers in the control treatment to 0.10 to 0.20 in steers fed RH 400 or ZH (P smaller than 0.05). No difference was detected in panel ratings for overall tenderness of steaks from steers fed RH 200 compared with controls (P bigger than 0.05). Steaks from steers fed RH 300 and RH 400 were comparable for all sensory attributes; however, both RH 300 and RH 400 were rated lower for overall tenderness than controls (P smaller than 0.05).

Gene clustering for function prediction as well as analyses of si

Gene clustering for function prediction as well as analyses of signalling pathways and the time-dependent dynamics of a system are common biological approaches that often rely on large dataset comparison. Different metrics can be used to evaluate the similarity between entities to be compared,

such as correlation coefficients and distances. While the latter offers a more flexible way of measuring potential biological relationships between datasets, the significance of any given distance is highly dependent on the dataset and cannot be easily determined. Monte Carlo methods are robust approaches for evaluating the significance of distance values by multiple random permutations of the dataset followed by distance calculation. We have developed R. S. WebTool (http://rswebtool.kwaklab.org), 5-Fluoracil DNA Damage inhibitor a user-friendly online server for random sampling-based evaluation of distance significances that features an array of visualization and analysis tools to help non-bioinformaticist users extract

significant relationships from random noise in distance-based dataset analyses.”
“OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with HY (HY-CNT) on bone repair in the tooth sockets of diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg kg(-1) i.v.), and the see more this website sockets were divided into normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with HY (1%), and diabetic treated with HY-CNT (100 mu g ml(-1)) groups. The sockets were analyzed according to the percentage of bone formation and the number of

cell nuclei. RESULTS: The percentage of bone trabeculae was lower in diabetic control animals (11.16 +/- 5.10% vs 41.92 +/- 6.34% in normal animals) after 14 days. Treating diabetic animals with HY or HY-CNT significantly increased the percentage of neoformed trabeculae (HY: 29.43 +/- 3.29%; HY-CNT: 36.90 +/- 3.07%). Moreover, the sockets of diabetic animals had an increased number of cell nuclei and HY or HY-CNT reduced this parameter. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that HY and HY-CNT restore bone repair in the tooth sockets of diabetic rats, suggesting that these biomaterials are potential adjuvant therapies for the management of diabetes.”
“A new approach stemming from the adiabatic-connection (AC) formalism is proposed to derive parameter-free double-hybrid (DH) exchange-correlation functionals. It is based on a quadratic form that models the integrand of the coupling parameter, whose components are chosen to satisfy several well-known limiting conditions. Its integration leads to DHs containing a single parameter controlling the amount of exact exchange, which is determined by requiring it to depend on the weight of the MP2 correlation contribution.

At the same time (12 h pi) intracellular

metabolite conce

At the same time (12 h pi) intracellular

metabolite concentrations of the upper part of glycolysis were significantly increased. On the contrary, nucleoside triphosphate concentrations of infected cells dropped clearly after 12 h pi. This behaviour was observed for two different human influenza A/PR/8/34 strains at slightly different time points.\n\nConclusions: Comparing these results with literature values for the time course of infection with same influenza strains, underline the hypothesis that influenza check details infection only represents a minor additional burden for host cell metabolism. The metabolic changes observed after12 h pi are most probably caused by the onset of apoptosis in infected cells. The comparison PF-04929113 in vitro of experimental data from two variants of the A/PR/8/34 virus strain (RKI versus NIBSC) with different productivities and infection dynamics showed comparable metabolic patterns but a clearly different timely behavior. Thus, infection dynamics are obviously reflected in

host cell metabolism.”
“Background: Previous studies, conducted in the urban of Antananarivo, showed low rate of confirmed malaria cases. We used a geographical and environmental approach to investigate the contribution of environmental factors to urban malaria in Antananarivo.\n\nMethods: Remote sensing data were used to locate rice fields, which were considered to be the principal mosquito breeding sites. We carried out supervised classification by the maximum likelihood method. Entomological study allowed vector species determination from collected larval and adult mosquitoes. Mosquito infectivity was studied, to assess the risk of transmission, and the type of mosquito breeding site was determined. Epidemiological data were collected from November 2006 to December 2007, from public health centres, to determine malaria incidence. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out on dried blood spots from patients, to detect cases of malaria. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to confirm malaria cases among febrile school children in a school survey.\n\nA geographical information system was

constructed for data integration. Altitude, temperature, rainfall, population density and rice field surface area were analysed and the effects of these factors on AR-13324 solubility dmso the occurrence of confirmed malaria cases were studied.\n\nResults: Polymerase chain reaction confirmed malaria in 5.1% of the presumed cases. Entomological studies showed An. arabiensis as potential vector. Rice fields remained to be the principal breeding sites. Travel report was considered as related to the occurrence of P. falciparum malaria cases.\n\nConclusion: Geographical and environmental factors did not show direct relationship with malaria incidence but they seem ensuring suitability of vector development. Absence of relationship may be due to a lack of statistical power. Despite the presence of An.

The prognosis was further improved by a combination

of lo

The prognosis was further improved by a combination

of long-term HBIG and antiviral therapy, in particular lamivudine, which reduced the reinfection rate, in most cases to between 0 and 5%. Owing to the cost and relative inconvenience of HBIG, some transplant centers have experimented with early discontinuation of HBIG and replacement with antiviral monotherapy. A number of studies, however, have found significantly higher recurrence rates associated with lamivudine selleck chemicals llc monotherapy (40-50%) compared with combination therapy and, hence, lamivudine monotherapy is not recommended.”
“Background: Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is the main metabolizing enzyme of histamine (a mediator of inflammation implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis-MS) in the CNS. We have investigated the possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism of the HNMT Tipifarnib price (chromosome 2q22.1), that causes the amino acid substitution Thr105Ile (decreasing enzyme activity) and the risk for MS.\n\nMethods: We studied the frequency of the HNMT genotypes

and allelic variants in 228 MS patients and 295 healthy controls using a PCR-RLFP method.\n\nResults: The frequencies of the HNMT genotypes and allelic variants did not differ significantly between MS patients and controls, and were unrelated with the age of onset of MS, gender, and course of MS.\n\nConclusion: The HNMT polymorphism is not related with the risk for MS.”
“Background: Voice problems are more common in teachers due to intensive voice use

during routine at work. There is evidence that occupational disphonia prevention programs are important in improving the quality voice and consequently the quality of subjects’ lives.\n\nAim: To investigate the impact of educational voice interventions for teachers on quality of life and voice.\n\nMethods: A longitudinal interventional Quizartinib clinical trial study involving 70 teachers randomly selected from 11 public schools, 30 to receive educational intervention with vocal training exercises and vocal hygiene habits (experimental group) and 40 to receive guidance on vocal hygiene habits (control group control). Before the process of educational activities, the Voice-Related Quality of Life instrument (V-RQOL) was applied, and 3 months after conclusion of the activities, the subjects were interviewed again, using the same instrument. For data analysis, Prox MIXED were applied, with a level of significance alpha < 0.05. Results: Teachers showed significantly higher domain and overall V-RQOL scores after preventive intervention, in both control and experimental groups. Nevertheless, there was no statistical difference in scores between the groups.\n\nConclusion: Educational actions for vocal health had a positive impact on the quality of life of the participants, and the incorporation of permanent educational actions at institutional level is suggested.

In the second phase of the work, information from the SARs of the

In the second phase of the work, information from the SARs of the benzothiophene series and data available in literature, we explored the in vitro pharmacological properties of the 6-substituted-7-fluoro-benzothiophene hydroxamates

and the 5-susbtituted-benzofuran hydroxamates. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The most common heritable genetic disease in the United States, cystic fibrosis (CF), is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel that interacts with and regulates a number of other proteins. The bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects 80% of patients causing decreased pulmonary function and life expectancy. It is not known how malfunction of the chloride channel allows for preferential colonization of patients by a single pathogen. Batimastat in vitro The hypothesis that CFTR interacts with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to phagocytize bacteria was tested. selleck compound A competitive antagonist of TLR4, MKLPS, was studied for its effect in gentamicin-protection-based bacterial invasion assays. Pre-incubation (15 min 50 mu g/mL) with

MKLPS did not alter the rate of phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by cultured epithelia. However, further studies with GFP-transfected P. aeruginosa revealed prominent antibiotic resistant microcolonies were formed. If CFTR is involved in phagocytosis of the bacteria, then internalization was predicted to decrease in iodide efflux. Surprisingly, cultured epithelia exposed to P. aeruginosa for 15 min showed increased cAMP-activated iodide efflux through CFTR. In addition, 15-min exposure to bacterial cell wall component, LPS, purified from P. aeruginosa also increased

CFTR iodide efflux in a dose-dependent manner (50, 100 and 200 mu g/mL LPS had 25%, 37% and 47% increase). In a reversal of this phenomenon, shorter 5-min exposure to 100 mu g/mL LPS resulted in a 25% decrease in forskolin-activated CFTR channel activity compared to controls. This data is consistent with a model in which CFTR is removed from the plasma membrane during phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa followed AC220 by recruitment of channels to the membrane to replace those removed during phagocytosis. More studies are needed to confirm this model, but this is the first report of a bacterial product causing a biphasic time-dependent and a dose-dependent alteration of CFTR channel activity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“When Monascus MX was grown under blue light instead of in the dark, citrinin production increased from 478 mg l(-1) to 698 mg l(-1). To explain this, the expression of the pksCT gene, which encodes citrinin polyketide synthase, and of 5 ORFs around it, were monitored. Blue light enhanced citrinin production by upregulating the expression of orf1, orf3, and orf4, indicating that pksCT was not the key gene responsible for the quantity of citrinin production in blue light.