The decreasing of the resistivity may attribute to the increase of Al donor learn more concentration by substitution of Zn2+ sites with Al3+ ions in the ZnO lattices. However, it should be noted that the variety of resistivity in Figure 4 is also in strong correlation to the change of crystal quality in the AZO films at different Al doping concentrations, as shown in Figure 3. Initially, the decrease of the resistivity with increasing the Al concentration from 0% to 2.26% is related to the improvement of the crystal quality of the AZO films, as it was indicated by the increased intensity of the (100) X-ray diffraction peak in Figure 3. The AZO film with the best crystal quality has the
minimum resistivity of 2.38 × 10−3 Ω·cm at Al concentration of 2.26%. At higher Al doping concentration above 3%, a decrease of the intensity of the (100) diffraction peak indicates a degeneration of this website the crystal quality;
as a consequence, an increase of the resistivity was shown in Figure 4. The reason for the increase of the resistivity at high Al concentration is Repotrectinib solubility dmso probably related to the formation of Zn vacancy acceptors or the formation of homologous phase like ZnAl x O y or Al2O3 in the AZO films [9, 22]. Figure 4 Dependence of the resistivity of AZO films on Al concentration. The transmission spectra of the AZO films deposited on quartz glasses are shown in Figure 5. The average transmittance was above 80% in the visible wavelength, regardless of the Al concentration in the AZO films. A blue shift of the optical band edge was observed with increasing the Al concentration. The relationship between absorption coefficient and optic band gap of direct band gap semiconductor is given by Tauc equation , (αhv)2 = B(hv − E g), where α is the absorption coefficient, hν is the photon energy, B is a constant, and E g is the optical band gap energy, respectively. The dependence of (αhν) Clomifene 2 on photon energy was plotted
in the inset of Figure 5. The band gap energy was obtained by the extrapolations of the liner regions of the optical absorption edges. Figure 6 shows the variation of band gap energy versus Al concentration. The band gap energy increased from 3.27 to 3.58 eV with increasing Al concentration from 0% to 4.42%. A linear fit to the bandgap energy versus Al concentration gives E g = 3.26 + 0.0749x Al, where E g is the band gap energy of AZO, x Al is the Al concentration of AZO. The correlation between the blue shift of the absorption edge and the increased conductivity with Al doping can be attributed to the Bustein-Moss increase of the band gap with increasing carrier concentration in semiconductors . Figure 5 Transmission spectra of AZO films deposited on quartz glasses. The inset is the plots of (αhν)2 versus photon energy. Figure 6 Dependence of the band gap energy of AZO films on Al concentration.