6 mu M Among the four compounds tested for apoptosis induction a

6 mu M. Among the four compounds tested for apoptosis induction activity, 6c induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. (C)

2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intralysosomal cystine accumulation. Growth retardation is more pronounced in cystinosis than in other chronic kidney diseases and is mostly not corrected by cysteamine.\n\nGrowth was evaluated in nine cystinosis patients, all treated with cysteamine, both after cysteamine and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy initiation. Growth hormone (GH) secretion was studied by nocturnal GH measurements in four of nine patients and by glucagon test in four of nine patients.\n\nRhGH was administered to seven of nine patients. At rhGH initiation, height was below -2 SDS in five of seven patients, final height was above -2 SDS in six of seven. In two patients not treated with rhGH, final height remained LXH254 inhibitor below -4 SDS despite cysteamine treatment being started at the age of 6.1 and 8.1 years, respectively. Nocturnal GH secretion was normal in all patients. Glucagon tests revealed GH deficiency in one patient; two of four patients had abnormal GH peak timing.\n\nWe present the first reported case of GH deficiency in cystinosis. Although

no overt GH deficiency was detected in other patients, abnormal GH peak timing can indicate a subclinical GH secretion problem. RhGH significantly improved growth in cystinosis patients and should be initiated early in life.”
“In the title compound, C8H9N+center dot H2PO4-, both the cation and anion have find more crystallographically

imposed mirror symmetry (all atoms apart from one O atom lie on the mirror plane). In the crystal, anions and cations are linked by O-H center dot center dot center dot O and pi-pi stacking interactions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.4574 (6) angstrom], forming chains parallel to the b axis. Adjacent chains are further connected by N-H center QNZ mw dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network.”
“This paper is concerned with the chaos control of two autonomous chaotic and hyper-chaotic systems. First, based on the Pontryagin minimum principle (PMP), an optimal control technique is presented. Next, we proposed Lyapunov stability to control of the autonomous chaotic and hyper-chaotic systems with unknown parameters by a feedback control approach. Matlab bvp4c and ode45 have been used for solving the autonomous chaotic systems and the extreme conditions obtained from the PMP. Numerical simulations on the chaotic and hyper-chaotic systems are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the analytical results. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“For weakening the fluctuations of outdoor solar air temperature, roofs-concrete slab ventilated roof, green roof and extruded polystyrene insulation roof are employed usually in recent years.

We further demonstrate that talin-R specifically masks a region i

We further demonstrate that talin-R specifically masks a region in talin-PTB where integrin beta-MP-CT binds and competes with it for binding to talin-PTB. The inhibitory interaction is disrupted by a constitutively activating mutation (M319A) or by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate,

a known talin activator. These data define a distinct autoinhibition mechanism for talin and suggest how it controls integrin activation and cell adhesion.”
“Secondary lymphoid organs are dominant sites of T cell activation, although many T cells are subsequently retained within peripheral tissues. Currently, these nonlymphoid compartments are viewed as sites only of effector T cell function, without the involvement of renewed induction of immunity via the interactions with professional antigen- presenting cells. We describe a method of reactivation of herpes simplex virus to examine the stimulation of tissue- resident T cells during secondary challenge. learn more The results revealed that

memory CD8(+) T cell responses can be initiated within peripheral tissues through a tripartite interaction that includes CD4(+) T cells and recruited dendritic cells. These findings lend evidence for the existence of a sophisticated T cell response mechanism in extra- lymphoid tissues that can act to control localized infection.”
“Purpose of review Alterations in kidney function are common in critically ill patients and are generally assessed by changes in serum creatinine (sCr) or urine output, which are considered surrogates for glomerular filtration URMC-099 inhibitor rate

(GFR) Epacadostat in vitro but do not reflect the overall kidney function. There is a great need for more reliable measurements of glomerular filtration in order to guide diagnosis and therapy for acute kidney injury. In this review, we will focus on recent advances to measure GFR that could help to better evaluate kidney function and improve patient care.\n\nRecent findings Standardized assays for sCr measurements, the use of a more precise scale with more frequent measurements, and the interpretation of the results based on patient’s characteristics can increase the clinical value of sCr. New endogenous and exogenous markers will provide a more precise estimation. Imaging techniques are being developed and will probably be available in the near future. New gold standards for glomerular filtration will help in the development and improvement in the use of new biomarkers of kidney injury.”
“Power flow study is performed to ensure the whole electricity system operating safely, stably and reliably. A back/forward sweep neural network (BFNN) algorithm is put forward based on numbering all nodes using breadth first search plan. All neurons use the same excitation function. The BFNN has a clear structure with a high approximation speed and high precision. Each neuron acts as the threshold to its adjacent neuron in front.

Methods: A total of 179 subjects (mean age, 55 4 9 years; 102

\n\nMethods: A total of 179 subjects (mean age, 55.4 9 years; 102

women) without heart disease and at low risk of cardiovascular disease who underwent CT angiography were selected. Left ventricular volumes, myocardial volume, and ejection fraction were measured with epicardial and 2 endocardial trace methods, including and excluding trace for the papillary and trabecular LY2157299 muscles. Values of all parameters obtained by both endocardial trace methods were compared.\n\nResults: Significant difference between both trace groups for all parameters on both sexes was found (P < .001). Significant differences in precision error of remeasurement were found in the including trace (3.6%) compared with the excluding trace (4.7%; P < .05) and in the epicardial trace (2.2%) compared with both endocardial traces (P < .001).\n\nConclusion: The left ventricular parameters measured by CT

angiography were influenced significantly by the trace method by including or excluding the papillary and trabecular muscles. The dual-standard reference values of left ventricular parameters were established, and the optimal segmentation methods were definite in considering the heart size and image quality studied with retrospective and prospective CX-6258 price CT angiography. (C) 2013 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.”
“Classical Swine Fever (CSF), also called Hog Cholera or European

Swine Fever, is a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by CSF virus (CSFV). Intermittent CSF outbreaks in China and other parts of the world have led to significant economic losses. Infection with highly virulent CSFV strains causes acute CSF characterized by high mortality and morbidity, while moderate https://www.selleckchem.com/products/jq-ez-05-jqez5.html to low virulence induces a prolonged, chronic disease. The envelope of the CSF virion contains three glycoproteins, E-rns, E1 and E2. E-rns has RNase activity and E2 is the major antigenic protein exposed on the outer surface of the virion. In vivo, these viral proteins have been shown to play a major role in virulence and pathogenicity, to produce antibodies and induce protective immune response. An improved understanding of the genetic basis of E-rns, E1 and E2 glycoproteins will permit rational design of new CSF vaccines with enhanced safety, efficacy and utility. In this article, we focus on biochemical properties and their functions of CSFV glycoproteins, and further demonstrate the development of new vaccines based on these proteins.

The mean preoperative VAS score was 8 21 and the mean postoperati

The mean preoperative VAS score was 8.21 and the mean postoperative VAS score was 2.66 (P < 0.05). The mean preoperative kyphotic angle for the 11 individuals with the thoracic or thoracolumbar burst fractures was 24.6 and the mean preoperative lordotic angle for the 3 individuals with lumbar burst fractures was 10.6. The corresponding values at 12 months postsurgery were 17.1 and

13.6.\n\nConclusion. This single-stage posterior approach for acute thoracic and lumbar burst fractures offers some advantages over the classic combined anterior-posterior approach. The results from this small series suggest that a single-stage posterior approach should be considered in select cases.”
“A total of 42 ejaculates were XMU-MP-1 used in the experiment;

six ejaculates per stallion, obtained from seven Pure Spanish stallions (PRE), were split and frozen in freezing media with different concentrations and combinations of cryoprotectant (CPA): (i) Caceres (skim milk based extender) containing 2.5% glycerol (2.5GL), (ii) Caceres containing 1.5% glycerol and 1.5% dimethylformamide (1.5%GL1.5%DMFA), (iii) Caceres extender supplemented with 1.5% glycerol and 2.5% dimethylformamide (1.5%GL2.5%DMFA) and (iv) Caceres extender supplemented with 4% dimethylformamide (4%DMFA). After at least 4 weeks of storage https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Adrucil(Fluorouracil).html in liquid nitrogen (LN), straws were thawed and semen analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry (membrane lipid architecture (Merocyanine 540), integrity and sublethal damage (YoPro-1) and mitochondrial Nirogacestat cell line membrane potential (JC-1)). After thawing, better results were observed in samples frozen in 4%DMFA or in combinations of 1.5%GL2.5%DMFA, in fact total motility increased by 16% in the 4%DMFA group compared to 2.5%GL (P < 0.05). Also, there was an increment in the percentage of progressive motile sperm in the 1.5%GL2.5%DMFA group (9.8% 2.5GL vs 19% in the 1.5%GL2.5%DMFA group p < 0.05); also, samples frozen in the 4%DMFA group had more intact (YoPro-1 negative) sperm

post-thawing, 29.3% in 2.5%GL vs 36.7% in 4%DMFA group (p < 0.05). Membrane lipid architecture was not affected by any of the cryoprotectants tested, while samples frozen in 4%DFMA had a lower percentage of mitochondria with lower membrane potential. It is concluded that DMFA improves the outcome of cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa mainly reducing sublethal cryodamage.”
“BACKGROUND: The N-terminal fragment of pro-brain type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is an established biomarker for cardiac failure.\n\nOBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of preoperative serum NT-proBNP on postoperative outcome and mid-term survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).\n\nMETHODS: In 819 patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery preoperative serum NT-proBNP levels were measured.

Therefore, Hsp60 is a novel regulator of mitochondrial permeabili

Therefore, Hsp60 is a novel regulator of mitochondrial permeability transition, contributing to a cytoprotective chaperone network that antagonizes CypD-dependent cell death in tumors. Cancer Res; 70(22); 8988-93.

(C) 2010 AACR.”
“Cytidine deaminase (EC, CDA), an enzyme of the pyrimidine salvage pathways, is responsible for the degradation and inactivation of several cytidine-based antitumor drugs such as cytarabine, gemcitabine, decitabine, and check details azacytidine. Thus, CDA inhibitors are highly sought after as compounds to be co-administered with said drugs to improve their effectiveness. Alternatively, the design of antitumor drugs not susceptible to the action of CDA is also regarded as an attractive solution. Herein we describe a virtual screen for CDA ligands based on chemical Sotrastaurin similarity and molecular docking. The campaign led to the identification of three novel inhibitors and one novel substrate, with a 19% hit rate, and allowed a significant extension of the structure-activity relationships, also in light of the compounds that resulted inactive. The most active compound identified through the screen is the inhibitor pseudoisocytidine, which has the potential to serve as a lead for highly stable compounds. The study also delineated the detrimental effect of 5-aza and 6-aza

substitutions, the incompatibility of the presence of an amino group at the 3′-position, as well as the presence of very strict steric requirements around the 2′-arabino position and, even more, the N4-position. Importantly, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2090314.html these features can be exploited for the design of novel antineoplastic agents resistant to the action of CDA.”
“White matter lesions, commonly seen on, MRIs of elderly people, are related to various geriatric disorders, including cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, and psychiatric disorders. Currently, white matter lesions are divided into periventricular

white matter lesions and deep white matter lesions. Although the meaning of these terms varies by study and this dichotomization itself is still in debate, a possible dissimilarity in pathogenic mechanisms between periventricular white matter lesions and deep white matter lesions are providing some clues for understanding pathophysiology of many geriatric syndromes associated with white matter lesions. We have reviewed the distinctions between periventricular white matter lesions and deep white matter lesions in terms of etiology, histopathology, functional correlates, and imaging methodologies. We suggest a new subclassification of white matter lesions that might have better etiological and functional relevance than the current simple dichotomization. The new categories are juxtaventricular, periventricular, deep white, and juxtacortical. This new classification scheme might contribute to reducing the heterogeneity of white matter lesion findings in future research.

The results showed a large number of genes belonging to subsystem

The results showed a large number of genes belonging to subsystems within the axon guidance signaling pathway, macrophages/immune system, glutamate system, and others. We divided the data and discussion of these results into 2 papers, and this is the first paper, which deals with the axon guidance signaling and macrophage/immune system. Other systems will be described in the next paper. Many components of subsystems within the axon guidance signaling Selleck LY3023414 underwent changes in gene expression from 3 M to 6 M so

that the synapse/dendritic spine number would decrease at 6 M. Thus, axon guidance signaling probably contributes to the decrease in synapse/dendritic spine number at 6 M, the phenomenon that fits the overshoot-type synaptic formation in primates. Microglial activity (evaluated by quantifying AIF1 expression) and gene expression of molecules that modulate microglia, decreased at 6 M, just like the synapse/dendritic spine number. Thus, although microglial activity

is believed to be related to phagocytosis of synapses/dendritic spines, microglial activity alone cannot explain how pruning was accelerated in the pruning phase. On the other hand, expression of molecules that tag synapses/dendritic spines as a target of phagocytosis by microglia (e.g., complement components) increased at 6 M, suggesting that these tagging proteins may be involved in the acceleration of pruning during NU7026 solubility dmso the pruning phase. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This study was performed to understand the anatomical substrates of amygdaloid modulation of feeding-related peptides-containing

neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). After biotinylated dextranamine (BDA) injection into the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) and immunostaining of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)- or orexin (ORX)-containing hypothalamic neurons in the mouse, the prominent overlap of the distribution field of the BDA-labeled fibers and that of the MCH-immunoreactive (ir) or ORX-ir neurons was found in the dorsolateral part of the LHA, and the labeled axon terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata Selleck Compound C and dendrites of the MCH-ir or ORX-ir neurons. It was further revealed that nearly all the BDA-labeled axon terminals in the dorsolateral part of LHA were immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase, an enzyme for conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The present data suggest that the CeA is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior by exerting its GABAergic inhibitory action upon the MCH- and ORX-containing LHA neurons. (C) 2009 Elsevier BV. All rights reserved.”
“Homomeric alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors represent an important and complex pharmaceutical target.

Despite the important roles of cationic amino acid transporters

Despite the important roles of cationic amino acid transporters

for normal brain functioning and various brain diseases there is currently only fragmentary knowledge about their cellular and regional distribution patterns in the human brain. We mapped the immunohistochemical localization of human cationic amino acid transporters 1, 2 and 3 (hCAT1, 2, and 3) throughout five adult human brains and found a wide but uneven distribution of these transporters. All three MLN2238 manufacturer hCAT1s were mainly localized in neurons, but were also found in numerous astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, plexus choroideus epithelial cells, and small blood vessels. The highest density of hCAT expressing neurons was observed in the hypothalamus, in some areas of the cerebral cortex, the thalamic reticular nucleus and the caudate nucleus, whereas weak to moderate expression was detected in the hippocampus,

the prefrontal cortex (hCAT1 only), pons, brain stem and cerebellum. In contrast to what has been found in rodent brain, we detected hCAT2 and hCAT3 also in astrocytes. Overall, each hCAT has its characteristic, individual cerebral expression patterns, which, however, overlap with the others.”
“Nanocomposite films were prepared successfully by simple solution casting method from plasticized starch/functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PS/f-MWCNTs). The interaction of starch with functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) was evidenced by PCI-34051 ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological and thermal properties of the composite films were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrical conductivity of the composites was increased significantly by sixteen times, from 0.1 x 10(-9) to 1.6 x 10(-9) S/cm. This reveals better dispersion of f-MWCNT with low concentration of f-MWCNT. The oxygen permeability of the composites was

reduced by half as compared to virgin PS. This indicates better dispersion of f-MWCNT in PS matrix due to formation of strong hydrogen bonding with PS matrix. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of calorie this website labeling on food selection and intake in dieters and non-dieters, and to explore whether expectations about food healthfulness moderate these effects.\n\nMETHODS: Participants were presented with a menu containing two items, a salad and a pasta dish. The menu had (a) no calorie information, (b) information that the salad was low in calories and the pasta was high in calories, (c) information that the salad was high in calories and the pasta was low in calories or (d) information that both were high in calories (study 2 only).

With increasing age, NHE1 TG mice exhibited increased myocyte apo

With increasing age, NHE1 TG mice exhibited increased myocyte apoptosis, developed left ventricular contractile dysfunction, underwent cardiac remodelling and died prematurely. Our findings indicate that: (1) Cardiac-specific NHE1 over-expression induces the ER stress response in mouse myrocardium, which may afford protection against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury despite increased NHE activity; (2) Ageing NHE1 TG mice exhibit myocyte apoptosis, cardiac remodelling and failure, likely as a result of Sustained ER stress; (3) The pluripotent effects of the ER stress response may confound studies that are based on the chronic over-expression of complex

proteins in myrocardium. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. Stem Cell Compound Library All rights reserved.”
“Recruitment of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) by the plasma membrane-associated adapter protein downstream of kinase 3 (Dok-3) attenuates signals transduced by the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Here we describe molecular details of Dok-3/Grb2 signal integration and function, showing that the Lyn-dependent

activation of the BCR transducer kinase Syk is attenuated by Dok-3/Grb2 in a site-specific manner. This process is associated with the SH3 domain-dependent translocation of Dok-3/ Grb2 complexes into BCR microsignalosomes and augmented phosphorylation of the inhibitory Lyn target HSP990 in vitro SH2 domain-containing inositol 5′ phosphatase. Hence, our findings imply that Dok-3/ Grb2 modulates the balance between activatory and inhibitory Lyn functions selleck chemicals llc with the aim to adjust BCR signaling efficiency.”
“Background: Retroviral integrase catalyzes integration of viral DNA into the host genome. Integrase interactor (INI) 1/hSNF5 is a host factor that binds to HIV-1 IN within the context of Gag-Pol and is specifically incorporated into HIV-1 virions during assembly. Previous studies have indicated that INI1/hSNF5 is required for late events in vivo and for integration in vitro. To determine the effects of disrupting the IN-INI1 interaction

on the assembly and infectivity of HIV-1 particles, we isolated mutants of IN that are defective for binding to INI1/hSNF5 and tested their effects on HIV-1 replication.\n\nResults: A reverse yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify INI1-interaction defective IN mutants (IID-IN). Since protein-protein interactions depend on the surface residues, the IID-IN mutants that showed high surface accessibility on IN crystal structures (K71R, K111E, Q137R, D202G, and S147G) were selected for further study. In vitro interaction studies demonstrated that IID-IN mutants exhibit variable degrees of interaction with INI1. The mutations were engineered into HIV-1(NL4-3) and HIV-Luc viruses and tested for their effects on virus replication.

Methods and results: Moderate-intensity ExT was administrated

Methods and results: Moderate-intensity ExT was administrated

to young normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and selleck compound SHR rats for 16 weeks. SHR rats had a significant increase in mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. SHR rats also had higher levels of glutamate, norepinephrine (NE), phosphorylated IKK beta, NF-kappa B p65 activity, NAD(P) H oxidase subunit gp91(phox), PICs and the monocyte chemokine protein-1 (MCP-1), and lower levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the PVN. These SHR rats also exhibited higher renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and higher plasma levels of PICs, and lower plasma IL-10. However, ExT ameliorates all these changes in SHR rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that there are the imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the

PVN of SHR rats, which at least partly contributing to sympathoexcitation, hypertension and cardiac AZD8055 hypertrophy; chronic exercise training attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring the balances between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; NF-kappa B and oxidative stress in the PVN may be involved in these exercise-induced effects.”
“Objectives: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are an attractive source for the generation of osteoclasts in vitro, which is an important prerequisite for the examination of resorption and remodeling of biomaterials. In this study, different preparation methods are used to obtain cell populations GDC-0994 ic50 with a rising content of CD14(+) monocytes. We wanted to address the question whether there is a correlation between content of CD14(+) cells in the preparation and functionality of formed osteoclasts. Materials and Methods: PBMC obtained by density gradient centrifugation with and without further purification by plastic adherence or immunomagnetic separation of CD14(+) cells were seeded on both cell culture

polystyrene and a calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) and cultivated under stimulation with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL). Cell cultures were characterized by histological and fluorescent staining of multinucleated cells that were positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the presence of actin rings, respectively. Furthermore, activities of osteoclast marker enzymes TRAP and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) were quantified. For osteoclasts cultured on CPC, resorption pits were visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Monocytes of all preparations were successfully differentiated into multinucleated osteoclasts showing TRAP and CA II activity on both cell culture plastic and CPC.


Sample age is the best predictor of s


Sample age is the best predictor of successful mRNA profiling of FFPE material, and miRNA profiling overcomes the limitation of age and copes well with older samples. British Journal of Cancer (2012) 107, 684-694. doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.294 www.bjcancer.com Published online 17 July 2012 (C) 2012 Cancer Research UK”
“Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease MK-2206 cell line (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c) examining their underlying brain morphometric correlates. A total of 607 participants were assigned to three MCI groups Nocodazole (high learning-low retention; low learning-high retention; low learning-low retention) and one control group (high learning-high retention) based on scores above or below a 1.5 SD cutoff on learning and retention indices of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Our results demonstrated that MCI individuals with predominantly a learning deficit showed a widespread pattern of gray matter loss at baseline, whereas individuals with a retention deficit showed more focal gray matter loss. Moreover, either learning or retention measures provided good predictive value for longitudinal clinical outcome over two years, although

impaired learning had modestly better predictive power than impaired retention. As expected, impairments in both measures provided the best predictive power. Thus, the conventional practice of relying solely on the use of delayed recall or retention measures in studies of amnestic MCI misses an important subset of older adults at risk of developing AD. Overall. our results highlight the importance of including learning measures in addition to retention measures when making click here a diagnosis of MCI and for predicting clinical outcome. (C)

2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Neutropenia is a common adverse effect of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. However, the mechanism involved is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the cause of treatment-induced neutropenia by determining cytokine levels in plasma and in bone marrow smears. Methods: Fifteen patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled in this study. Plasma cytokine levels were determined using the Luminex assay before and during treatment. We simultaneously determined the levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and 7 other cytokines, and performed bone marrow cytology when blood cell counts indicated neutropenia. Results: Only 1 bone marrow smear indicated a low cell proliferation level, whereas active proliferation was observed in the remaining 14 patients.