marginale  and . buy Abiraterone Two investigations are particularly noteworthy in this regard: firstly, the identification of the surface proteome of A. marginale  and  and secondly, the identification of type 4 secretion system components recognized by T and B cells from protected cattle . However, while sterile immunity against homologous challenge has been achieved, these provide only partial immunity against heterologous challenge. This may be due to the immunodominant responses induced against the hypervariable MSP2 and MSP3 proteins.
Compared to these, other antigens, such as the T4SS proteins and other surface proteome molecules, are considered subdominant antigens. These induce weaker and more inconsistent antibody and BGJ398 mouse T cell responses, at least in the context of complex immunogens such as whole organism and membrane vaccines that also contain MSP2 and MSP3
. However, while these responses may be less robust, these antigens appear to be less variable, making them important to include in a vaccine producing pan-strain immunity. The body of previous research in A. marginale has resulted in a large catalog of potential vaccine candidates. We attempted here to reduce the number of candidate antigens by applying high throughput genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to 10 U.S. strains of A. marginale. The intent was to identify the most conserved proteins from all of the above vaccine strategies that may form the core components of a broadly protective vaccine. We initially verified that pyrosequencing was capable of accurately determining the relationships among already fully sequenced strains and the variable msp2 and msp3 pseudogenes in those strains. We correctly identified the shared msp2 and msp3 pseudogenes and those having <90% identity. This method was then applied to all 10 U.S. strains of A. marginale. Extensive diversity was observed in the
repertoire of both msp2 and msp3 pseudogenes among strains, with generally more diversity observed in the complement of msp3 pseudogenes when compared to msp2. There was also extensive diversity in SNPs among strains, distributed over most Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease of the genome, agreeing with previous observations on a smaller subset of strains . However, the members of the pfam01617 family are relatively well conserved overall, with no protein having <90% identity between all the strains examined. All of these proteins have SNPs, and SNPs within strains have a similar distribution pattern to those described for the rest of the genome in terms of the numbers of strains with polymorphisms. A surprising observation was the more extensive diversity in A. marginale subspecies centrale when compared to all 10 U.S. A. marginale strains.