If a straightforward randomized comparison over

a period

If a straightforward randomized comparison over

a period of 1 year is undertaken, then it will be necessary to defend the sensitivity of the trial, that is, its ability to detect clinically important differences from the active control, if they exist. This will probably have to take into account a high level of dropout and noncompliance, and that could clearly pose problems. Because of these problems, it may be more profitable to make use of the designs described earlier in the section Long-term Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies of efficacy: relapse and recurrence. This might be done sequentially, first establishing that 3 or 6 months’ treatment was better than treatment that stopped after the acute exacerbation, and then going on to 1 year. Patients whose acute episode was successfully treated by the test treatment could be randomized to placebo (stopping treatment) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or test treatment. Those who survived successfully on test until 6 months, say, could then be randomized again to placebo or to test treatment. In this way, the value of continuing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatment, at each selected time point would be established. The problem of dropouts would be reduced because only those who reached each time point would be rerandomized. In trials of this nature, a natural primary outcome measure would be the time to the reappearance of positive symptoms, suitably defined. A “time Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to event” analysis of this outcome

would be appropriate. In this analysis, no distinction need be made between relapse and recurrence in the primary analysis, although secondary analyses might consider this distinction. Other measurements of symptoms and adverse effects could also be used to support the primary outcome. A positive conclusion of a trial using this type of design implies that continued treatment up to and beyond

the point of antagonist Bicalutamide randomization is worthwhile. Hence the later that randomization is deferred, the longer the treatment period that can be supported by the trial. However, the later that randomization is deferred, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the more patients will leave the trial before randomization, and so the more must be entered at the start. In addition, after Anacetrapib randomization the trial must continue for a reasonably long period of time in order to collect sufficient “events.” There are likely to be limits on the numbers of patients that can be recruited initially and on the overall length of the trial that will place practical www.selleckchem.com/products/AP24534.html restrictions on this design.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by the chronic presence of impairing symptoms of excessive hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention.1 The clinical diagnosis of International Statistical. Classification of Disease, 10th Revision (ICD-10) hyperkinetic disorder (HKD)2 is a restricted subset, of ADHD, with narrower inclusion criteria and more exclusions.

83 Sleep and memory Sleep and the

83 Sleep and memory Sleep and the functional connectome are overlapping research areas. Neuroimaging studies of sleep based on EEG-PET and EEG-fMRI are revealing the brain networks that support sleep. Such infraslow oscillations may organize sleep-dependent neuroplastic processes including consolidation of episodic memory, for example. Picchioni et al found positive www.selleckchem.com/products/kpt-330.html correlations between the power in the infraslow EEG band and MRI blood oxygen level-dependent

(BOLD) response in subcortical regions and negative correlations in the cortex. Robust negative correlations were detected principally in paramedian heteromodal cortices whereas positive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical correlations were seen in cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, lateral Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neocortices, and hippocampus.84 Sleep has adaptive and recreating functions that uphold waking activity in humans and mammals in general. Our understanding of DMN activity and its regulation during sleep may Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be also important for our general understanding of phenomena

like memory, arousal, and consciousness.80,84-86 Clinically sleep-wake disturbances such as increased inadvertent daytime napping and insomnia at night affect 25% to 40% of patients with mild-to-moderate AD.87 Even in mild cognitive impairment there are already abnormalities in sleep architecture and electroencephalography measures. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Sleep changes in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment may contribute to memory deficits by interfering with sleep-dependent memory consolidation.88 In a small study, Ju investigated sleep in 145 cognitively healthy probands older than 45 years. Amyloid deposition, as assessed by β-amyloid levels, was present in 32 participants. This group had

worse sleep quality, as measured by sleep efficiency compared with those without amyloid deposition, after selleck screening library correction for age, sex, and ApoE4 allele Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical carrier status, while the quantity of sleep Dacomitinib did not differ between groups. Frequent napping, 3 or more days per week, was associated with amyloid deposition. The authors concluded that indices for amyloid deposition in the preclinical stage of AD appears to be associated with worse sleep quality.89 Taken together the brain activity patterns may directly modulate the molecular cascades that are relevant to diseases. In the case of AD, increased resting-state activity may accelerate the formation of amyloid pathology. This opens up perspectives for new interventions that may take the form of a therapy that attempts to modify glycolysis or other aspects of brain metabolism or to boost prophylaxis by the promotion of healthy sleep behavior or working behavior.


kg/m2) correlated positively with a sustained high qual


kg/m2) correlated positively with a sustained high quality of ECC. A physical fitness test that incorporates the upper part of the body, such as rowing ergometry, facilitates the prediction of the quality of ECC. The initial quality was not significantly different between the two CVRs, but rescuer fatigue occurred earlier for 30:2 than for 15:2. Female participants tended to compress too shallowly and too rapidly. Our data on rescuer fatigue strongly supported the recommendation to relieve the provider every two minutes during ECC as well as the use of feedback Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical devices to assure high-quality chest compressions. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SGR conceived and dasatinib IC50 designed the study, made substantial

contribution to data acquisition, performed statistical kinase inhibitor 17-AAG analyses and data interpretation, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical drafted the manuscript. PN made substantial contributions to data analyses. SR substantially recruited participants and carried out data acquisition. AT helped to draft the manuscript. AN made substantial contribution to data acquisition regarding Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical physical fitness parameters. MQ helped to draft the manuscript. CE drafted the manuscript and made substantial contribution to data interpretation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-227X/11/20/prepub Acknowledgements We are indebted to the Göttingen Fire Department as well as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to the participating nurses and medical

doctors for their willingness to support the study. The authors would like to thank Sabine Asendorf and Dr. Ursula Hilmar Vogel, both from the Section of Sports Medicine at Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany, for their helpful assistance with the experiments of Part I. We also thank to Ingmar Lautenschläger, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Kiel, Germany, for his support during the experiments. Thanks to Dr. Günther Hahn, PhD, and Jörg Dittmar, both Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from the Section of Anaesthesia Research, University Medical Centre Göttingen (UMG), Germany, for performing the MatLab™ analyses as well as to Wilfrid Fraatz, Department of Medical Engineering at UMG, for evaluating the force-depth relationship of the manikin. Funding Funding has been provided solely from departmental sources.
The magnitude Cilengitide of injury-related mortality and morbidity in China was highlighted by Wang and colleagues in the Health System Reform in China Series featured in The Lancet[1]. Wang et al. reported that 10% of all deaths and 30% of all potentially productive life years lost (PPYLL) were due to injury related causes. In numeric terms, this equates to the loss of approximately 850,000 lives per annum, with two-thirds of those killed being less than 45 years of age [1]. Traffic-related injury (32.3%), drowning (13.4%), falls (9.

2009) The BRISC is designed to address gaps in these available t

2009). The BRISC is designed to address gaps in these available tools. First, it provides a quick screen for emotional

health relative to a wide spectrum of diagnoses and healthy people, which is not available in currently available instruments. This enables identification of cases at risk of poor mental and neurological health across various disorders and practice settings. Second, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical it includes measures of coping to inform the triage of those most at risk and coping poorly Calcitriol IC50 versus those who are resilient and coping well. This information is also not provided by available instruments. The BRISC has been validated against other self-report measures of emotional health, functional outcome Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical measures, and biological susceptibility factors (for details, see Methods). It is designed to provide a time- and cost-effective screen, delivered via the web, with immediate reporting on results. This study was designed to evaluate the

sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the 45-item BRISC and the 15-item “mini-BRISC” in distinguishing clinical versus healthy status across a range of disorders in a large sample of adult outpatients and healthy volunteers. BRISC scores were compared with a detailed assessment of clinical status. Method The BRISC The BRISC was developed and validated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical within a framework called the “INTEGRATE model”, which draws on psychiatric, psychological, physiological, and neuroscience theories (Gordon et al. 2008; Williams et al. 2008). It is designed to measure, by self-report, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the spectrum of good versus poor self-regulation of emotional functions, which underlies mental health and has a basis in neurobiology. The BRISC measures three core domains: negativity bias, emotional resilience, and social skills. Negativity bias represents hypersensitivity to stress and the expectation of negative outcomes, which elevate the risk for poor brain health (Wichers et al. 2007; Williams et al. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2009, 2010). Positivity Bias is the opposing tendency and quantifies a

lack of negativity bias and an expectation of positive and/or neutral outcomes. Emotional resilience is the capacity for self-efficacy. It is premised in the notion that having a “thick skin” (or emotional resilience) may Dacomitinib offset poor mental functioning and facilitate good functioning. Social skills is the capacity to engage socially and seek support. These attributes contribute to the ability to cope with poor mental functioning and to facilitate good functioning. Development of the BRISC followed a stepwise process which is detailed in its manual (Brain Resource Ltd publishers 2010). The five main validation steps are summarized below: Construct validation of content domains These three domains were validated by principal components analyses of an initial pool of 93 items (Rowe et al.

59 Epidemiological studies of premorbid cognitive functioning (eg

59 Epidemiological studies of premorbid cognitive functioning (eg, in childhood or adolescence) may point to a possible qualitative difference between different psychotic disorders. There is a well documented premorbid cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. A recent meta-analysis estimated that, on average,

future schizophrenia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cases exhibit an 8-point deficit (.5 standard deviations) in their childhood IQ. 65 Recent studies suggest that abnormal premorbid IQ is also a characteristic of depression.66,67 In contrast, epidemiological research suggests that future bipolar disorder patients may have superior intellectual ability. This has been reported in some,66,68,69 although not all studies,70,71 and requires further investigation. If supported, the differences in premorbid functioning may point to potential Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical developmental discrimination between schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. “Cognitive impairment” in schizophrenia: who is impaired and who is not? From the previous sections it is well accepted that schizophrenia patients, as a group, have cognitive deficits. Several previous studies, however, demonstrate that in some persons with schizophrenia,

cognitive abilities are unimpaired or normal.3,72,74 The central issue Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is which patients can be identified as having a cognitive deficit.75 Some conceptualizations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of this issue have relied on approaches from clinical neuropsychology to define cognitive impairment. These definitions are based on a performance deficit selleck chem compared with a healthy

control population (or normative data), such as one standard deviation below the mean on one or more areas of cognitive function. Using such definitions the estimated percentage of schizophrenia patients who have a cognitive small molecule impairment has varied from between 70% to 80%54,73 to no more than 55 %.74 A recent study54 compared various classification methods of cognitive impairment using neuropsychological Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Drug_discovery assessment data from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort.76,77 Of the 94 persons with schizophrenia in the study, 82% to 84% were classified as neuropsychologically impaired (Figure 3) . The rate of impairment was lower for other psychotic disorders.54 Figure 3. Rates and severity of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients. Data came from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort54,76,77 (N=94 cases). Definition of impairment Mild: Performance between 1 and 2 standard deviations below norms on at … Schizophrenia-specific and abbreviated neuropsychological assessment batteries Traditionally, many of the neuropsychological assessment batteries used are long and complex and may require several hours to administer.

4-6) However, data on the clinical characteristics, laboratory f

4-6) However, data on the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, echocardiographic parameters and in-hospital cause outcome of this variant are limited compared to typical SCMP.7-10) In their article in this issue of the Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound titled “Different characteristics between patients with apical and non-apical subtypes of stress-induced cardiomyopathy”, Lee et al.11) reported that the type of preceding stressor and clinical presentation, including chest pain, pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, and in-hospital mortality, are similar, the exception being Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hypertension. However,

patients with the non-apical type are younger than patients with the apical type, and the latter have a higher regional wall-motion abnormality (RWMA) index, more frequent T-wave inversion, and longer QT interval and corrected QT interval. This result is similar Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to reported data on age and ECG findings (Table 1). Table 1 Comparison of characteristics between apical vs. non-apical SCMP in several studies Regarding the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clinical presentation, however, Hahn et al.7) and Song et al.9) reported that fewer patients with the non-apical type developed cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. Additionally, unlike Lee et al.,11) Ramaraj

and Movahed8) and Song et al.9) reported that the non-apical type is always triggered by emotional and physical stress. Regarding cardiac enzymes, only Song et al.9) reported that a higher creatine kinase MB fraction and troponin-I in the non-apical type. They explained that the non-apical type had the greater extent of affected myocardium. Lee et al.11) reported no deaths, unlike previous studies. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Although the long-term prognosis for

SCMP is relatively good, recent studies have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suggested that the short-term prognosis is not as favorable as generally considered.7),10),12),13) Furthermore, underlying conditions, old age, hemodynamic compromise, lower left http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-888.html ventricular systolic function, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score and high-sensitive C-reactive protein are associated with the prognosis.10),12),14) Therefore, it is important to interpret the results of these studies carefully because they enrolled only small numbers of patients in a single centers except the study of the Kwon et al.10) The clinical features of non-apical ballooning are similar to Dacomitinib those of typical apical ballooning and suggest a common pathophysiological etiology. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain SCMP, but its pathophysiology is not clear. Catecholamines may play a role in triggering SCMP because patients often have preceding emotional or physical stress. In clinical studies, mental stress has been demonstrated to reduce the left ventricular ejection fraction and, rarely, induce RWMA in conjunction with a rise in catecholamines.15) Wittstein et al.

2006) In contrast, ECT in Asia it is regarded as an “antipsychot

2006). In contrast, ECT in Asia it is regarded as an “antipsychotic” agent (Little 2003; Chanpattana et al. 2005a, b, 2010; Chanpattana and selleck Kramer 2004; Ahikari et al. 2008). Discrepancies in indication could be due to differences in diagnostic practice, a lower recognition, and under treatment of depressive disorder, and also lower mental health care budgets (Chanpattana and Kramer 2004). In contrast to Asia, the typical ECT patient in the United States is said to be an elderly white female paying for treatment with insurance or private funds (Kramer 1999). Higher ECT treatment rates Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are found among Caucasian

white ethnicity in Pennsylvania (Sylvester et al. 2000), England (Department of Health 2007), and Pacritinib Sigma Western Australia (Teh et al. 2005), which might imply discriminatory factors in treatment selection. Worldwide, there is a general tendency toward a low, within-country, ECT provision by psychiatric institutions, varying from below 6% in USA (Kramer 1999), to 23–51% Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in Europe (Benadhira and Teles 2001; Sienaert et al. 2005a, 2006; Bertolin-Guillen et al. 2006; van Waarde et al. 2009; Schweder

et al. 2011a), 66% in Australia (Chanpattana 2007), and 59–78% in Asia (Chanpattana et al. 2005a, b). In Norway, institutions even have waiting lists for ECT treatment (Schweder et al. 2011b). Altogether, this might indicate a trend toward ECT being provided by specialized units, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but could also be a result of worldwide paucity in ECT training (Duffett and Lelliott 1998; Chanpattana et al. 2005a, b; Chanpattana and Kramer 2004), and even changing treatment trends. ECT has for a long time been over held as a last-resort

treatment for medication-resistant and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical very severe life-threatening clinical conditions (McCall 2001; Eranti and McLoughlin 2003), as reported from USA (Prudic et al. 2001). However, a transformation in ECT indication into first-line acute treatment (life saving, catatonia, previous good response, and patient preference) is apparent not only in Europe (Muller et al. 1998; Duffett et al. 1999; Zeren et al. 2003; Schweder et al. 2011a), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but also in Saudi Arabia (Alhamad 1999) and Australia (Lamont et al. 2011). Although world widely ECT is mainly administered Cilengitide by psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists, another change is that of other professions than psychiatrists (geriatricians and nurses) administering ECT in Europe (van Waarde et al. 2009; Schweder et al. 2011b). The trend toward increasing ambulatory ECT and ECT use among outpatients in Europe (15–19%) (Duffett et al. 1999; Department of Health 2007; Enriquez et al. 2010; Schweder et al. 2011b) is conceivably, parallel to other ambulatory treatment tendencies, out of the best interest to the recovering patient and his caregivers. Overall, the report of side effects, adverse events, and mortality rates is sparse. Although mortality rate is reported from Thailand (0.

74 Importantly,

74 Importantly, TAK-700 solubility miR-1 was downregulated prior to hypertrophy development (1d) and persisted until later stages of hypertrophy (14d), and specifically up to 1 week before the presentations of HF in the TAC model. Moreover, five of the miRNAs that were upregulated during

hypertrophy development (7d) (miR-199a, -199a*, -199b, -21, -214) and persisted until day 14 were the ones that exhibited the greatest change (>2 fold). 74 These findings indicate a distinct stage-specific role of miR-1 and the latter five miRNAs in the development of hypertrophy in the TAC mouse model. Similar miRNA expression changes were observed in another study, utilizing both the TAC mouse model and mice with cardiac-specific expression of activated calcineurin (CnA) (aimed at inducing pathological cardiac remodeling and hypertrophic growth). Accordingly, 42 miRNAs were differentially expressed in TAC hearts and 47 in CnA, with the two groups sharing 21 upregulated and 7 dowregulated miRNAs. Importantly, six of these miRNAs (miR-23,

-24, -125, -195, -199a, -214) were consistent with findings in idiopathic end-stage human failing heart tissue, suggesting the conservation of pathogenic processes across species and highlighting their importance in HF. 70 The comparative study of a preload versus afterload cardiac hypertrophy mouse model, revealed that miRNA expression changes several days post TAC or shunt, suggesting that these mechanisms are involved in the later stages of remodeling post cardiac overload. The hypertrophy related miRNA- 133, -30 and -208, were regulated only in the afterload model, consistently with the direct role

of miR-208 in ß-MHC upregulation. 73,74,92 The preload hypertrophy model presented with changes in miR-140, -320 and -455. MiR-320 has been associated with apoptosis, while both miR-320 and miR-140 are upregulated in human HF. 79 Studies conducted in the left ventricles of a rat model of hypertrophy induced by banding of the ascending aorta, detected four upregulated miRNAs (miR-23a, -27b, -125b and -195), 14 days post operation, when the hypertrophy was already established (left ventricle weight/ body weight ratio increased by 65%). 93 Importantly, miR-23a,-27b and -195 are known to favor CMC hypertrophic Carfilzomib growth (see section 3.c.i). The observed changes in the expression of miRNAs in this rat model of hypertrophy are in line with previous studies in mice and human tissue, thus strengthening the notion of intra-species conservation of HF-related miRNA mechanisms. miRNA signatures change during disease progression to HF The expression of miRNA is a highly dynamic process, with different molecules and combinations thereof being implicated in the different stages of conditions leading to HF. The most representative example of miRNA expression pattern shift during HF development is that of miR-1 and miR-133.

84 Direct

costs include medical consultations, investigat

84 Direct

costs include medical consultations, investigations, pharmaceuticals, provision of personal and nursing care, and often residential care in the later stages. In 2005 the care provided by caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias cost the US at least 83 billion USD.7 Comparative figures for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Australia were approximately 3.2 billion AUD (approximately 2.6 billion USD) in 2002. 85 Cost estimates may omit or underestimate the substantial hidden unpaid costs borne by caregivers, which are substantial. Indirect costs include loss of earnings by patients and family caregivers as they relinquish or reduce employment, hours of informal care and mortality burden.85,86 Hie US Alzheimer’s Association7 estimated that direct and indirect costs total 148 billion USD annually based on 2005 estimates. In Australia total costs reached 7 billion AUD, or over 40 000 AUD in total costs for each individual with dementia.85 An important issue is balancing caregiving Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and work responsibilities. Almost 60% of US family caregivers of people with

dementia are also employed, of whom two thirds reported that they missed work, 8% that they turned down promotion opportunities, and up to 31% that they had given up work to attend to caregiving responsibilities.3-7 The economic disadvantage associated with caregiving Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the developing world is significant.10 Wimo and colleagues estimated that direct costs of dementia in emerging markets and developing countries totaled 13 billion USD in 2003 .10 Total costs, including

those borne by families are likely to be much higher. On average, 32% of caregivers in the countries surveyed cut back on paid work to care for a family Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical member with dementia (including 84% in Nigeria). Compensatory financial support was lacking, very few people received government Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pensions, and 45% to 80% received no informal support. While health care EPZ-5676 supplier services are cheaper, in relative terms these families spend a greater proportion of their income on health care for the person with dementia. Moreover, caregivers from selleck kinase inhibitor poorer countries tend to use the more expensive services of private doctors due Brefeldin_A to unsatisfactory public services.10 Predictors of and protectors from caregiver distress Evidence regarding which variables are associated with greater and lower levels of strain and psychological morbidity experienced by caregivers (Table I) sometimes conflicts. For example, greater caregiver strain has been linked to both shorter and longer duration of dementia, as explained by three theories. The adaptation hypothesis posits that over time caregivers adapt to the demands of their role.54-55 Alternatively, the “wear and tear” hypothesis proposes that the longer a caregiver remains in his or her role, the more likely negative outcomes are to occur.

The adoption of any of these combinations influences the relation

The adoption of any of these combinations influences the relationship between the effective measured radiance at the top of the atmosphere and the resulting Digital Numbers (DN), i.e. it influences the CCD/CBERS-2B absolute calibration.It is possible to change the sensor gain to values of 0.59, 1 and 1.69. So, the calibration Tubacin alpha-tubulin coefficients calculations were performed for each of these gain values. Finally, as the band 3 signals can be transmitted by two channels, specific calibrations coefficients were also determined for these two options as well.3.?Relative calibrationThe CCD/CBERS-2B raw images in each band are composed by five parts (three arrays and two overlap regions) as presented on Figure 2.Figure 2.Structure of the CCD/CBERS-2B images.According to Figure 2, the CCD/CBERS-2B detector array arrangement consists of three arrays of 2,048 detectors (or pixels) with two overlap regions of 154 detectors and a dark current region of 8 detectors in each array. These arrays are positioned inside the camera as a ��divoli�� [4] conception guaranteeing the complete and continuous cross-track imagery. This conception is the same adopted in the Haute Resolution Visible sensor (HRV) on board of the SPOT satellites.A relative calibration procedure is applied to equalize the detectors response inter and intra arrays. The first step of the relative calibration is the odd/even detectors equalization assuming that the intra-array detectors should have the same average value. This procedure is applied in each array individually, followed by inter-array equalization using the average of each array by the mean of the three arrays as a normalizing criterion. In both steps, gains and off-sets are calculated per detectors and spectral band.In the overlap regions, as they are characterized by a low energy incidence, also two steps are followed. The first one includes the equalization intra-overlap region based on the weighted mean (by the relative distance) between homologous detectors responses and the second step includes a gain and off-set calculation to be applied in the equalized overlap region to also equalize that with two neighbors arrays responses.The relative calibration criteria have been defined differently in China and in Brazil, since Chinese and Brazilian teams have worked independently due to the lack of a formal and specific agreement. The procedures briefly described above have been adopted by the Brazilian team according its own background and previous experience. Thus, it is expected radiometric differences between relative calibrated images generated in both countries, i.e., for the same raw data from the same scene, the resulting relative calibrated images will present light differences between digital numbers (DN) from the same pixel.