One other nutrient that has generated heaps of literature, including many controversies in rheumatology is vitamin D. Emerging evidence and consensus regarding its function have established it as a popular and economic therapeutic agent prescribed by many physicians and rheumatologists for a spectrum of disorders, but not without criticism. Careful and critical appraisal of such confusing and contradicting literature is needed to reach any cautious conclusion. There are also differing views on the cut-off value of vitamin D to label insufficiency and deficiency, but most agree on a value that keeps parathhormone (PTH) levels in the normal range. Keeping
Ku-0059436 datasheet this in mind, 25(OH)D levels more than 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) is considered normal, levels between 20 and 30 ng/mL (50–75 nmol/L) is defined as insufficiency and level less than 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) is called deficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are global phenomena and sun exposure alone may not be the sole determinant for this. In spite of good sun exposure, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent from sub-Saharan Africa to south Asia and affects half the population
in this region, similar to that in Western countries with temperate climates.[2, 3] The fascinating molecule of vitamin D belongs to the class of secosteroids. It is different from other steroids by unfolding of two of its four rings. Its role as an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antineoplastic agent, as well as its Venetoclax solubility dmso role in preventing cardiovascular BCKDHA morbidity and mortality, are well known. It interacts with a large array of molecules, including vitamin D receptor (VDR), and much of it depends on vitamin D binding proteins. The role of VDR polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has also been extensively studied. As expected of a steroid, vitamin D’s anti-inflammatory actions are mediated by down regulation of dendritic cells, Th1 cells and B cells, many pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibition of micro-RNAs like MiRNA-155, and by inducing apoptosis. Vitamin D is also capable of neutralizing interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-22 which are not achieved even by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockade; this action has far-reaching implications
in many systemic autoimmune diseases. There are now studies showing enriched gene expression of vitamin D response elements (VDRE) in non-major histocompatibility loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as modest association of variants of loci controlling vitamin D levels with RA. These findings strongly support the theory that vitamin D plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. Prevalence of low vitamin D states in RA is reported from most populations, including publications associating low vitamin D state with disease activity.[9, 10] Indeed, a recent meta-analysis of 215 757 participants proves these points beyond doubt. Relatively fewer studies found no correlation between disease activity and low vitamin D state in RA.