Further, since MPL is a potent inducer of Seliciclib in vivo Th1 response and can function through subcutaneous route also, we speculate that MPL can be combined with liposomes and can be administered through subcutaneous route to overcome the failure of liposomal vaccine through this route. Indeed we have preliminary evidence showing
that immunization with liposomal antigens in association with MPL-TDM can induce protection against L. donovani infection in BALB/c mice through subcutaneous route (unpublished observation). AS01, a liposomal formulation containing MPL as a potent inducer of humoral and cell-mediated response is already in clinical trials for malaria . Thus liposomal formulated MPL-TDM+LAg may be the choice of adjuvant for vaccine development against Leishmania and other intracellular pathogens. Conclusions This
comparative study of BCG+LAg and MPL-TDM + LAg vaccines with cationic liposomal formulation of LAg interestingly reveals a significantly greater effectiveness of the liposomal vaccine for protection against progressive VL in BALB/c. Evaluation of the immune responses emphasize the need for an immunogenic vaccine for elicitation of potent vaccine-induced cellular immunity based on both Th1 and Th2 cell responses to confer protection against the visceral disease. Thus, the cationic liposomes offer a rational choice of adjuvant for the development of vaccines against a range of infectious diseases such as LBH589 supplier leishmaniasis, malaria and tuberculosis. Methods Animals Female BALB/c mice (4-6 weeks old),
bred in the animal facility of Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (Kolkata), were used for experimental purposes with approval of the IICB Animal Ethical Committee and mice were handled according to their guidelines. Parasites and culture condition L. donovani, strain AG83 (MHOM/IN/1983/AG83) Mephenoxalone was originally isolated from an Indian kala-azar patient and maintained in Syrian golden hamsters by serial passage as described elsewhere . Briefly, promastigotes were grown at 22°C in Medium 199 (pH 7.4) supplemented with 20% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS), 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, 25 mM HEPES, 100 μg/ml streptomycin sulphate (all from Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, USA), and the parasites were subcultured in the same medium at an average density of 2 × 106 cells/ml at 22°C . Preparation of leishmanial antigens LAg was prepared from L. donovani promastigotes as described earlier . Briefly, stationary phase promastigotes, harvested after the third or fourth passage in liquid culture, were washed four times in cold 20 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and resuspended at a concentration of 1.0 g cell pellet in 50 ml of cold 5 mM Tris-HCL buffer (pH 7.6).