3%, and thus make it possible for straightforward conversion of internet data in empirical suits involving Lyman details regarding internal organs vulnerable (OARs). Body organ variables to the fresh system get with regards to Lyman model mirielle along with TD50, along with conversely m and also TD50 are generally indicated the guidelines with the fresh equation. The function from the Lyman volume-effect parameter in can be unrevised from the function from the Lyman design. To get a non-homogeneously drawn OAR, a formula relates d(ref), n, v(eff) and also the Niemierko similar consistent measure (EUD), in which deborah(ref) along with v(eff) are the reference dose and efficient fraxel level of the actual Kutcher-Burman reduction algorithm (we.e. the LKB design). The result is from the LKB design that even EUD irradiation of the OAR brings about the identical NTCP as the initial non-homogeneous distribution. Your NTCP situation thus remains represented as a function of EUD. The actual inverse formula declares EUD like a objective of NTCP and is also accustomed to develop a table associated with EUD vs . typical tissues complication probability for your Emami-Burman parameter matches and for OAR parameter many methods from modern files.Inches”Blood matrix metalloproteinase Nine (MMP-9) stage can be a guaranteeing fresh diagnostic marker. The purpose of the actual case-control study is to investigate relationship involving the serum MMP-9 amount with occurrence and also advancement of cancer of the breast. Your serum MMP-9 degree has been researched through gelatin zymography inside 100 patients together with breast cancers along with One hundred twenty balanced members. The normal worth of MMP-9 task had been substantially greater throughout individuals using MK-8931 nmr breast cancers when compared to management (S < .002), this worth fits using tumour stage (G Equals .005) along with tumour dimensions (R = .012). Our results advise solution MMP-9 stage can be a prospective analysis gun regarding projecting cancer of the breast event and also further advancement.Inches”Objectives:\n\nSeverity associated with condition ratings have gained significant curiosity because of their used in forecasting benefits like fatality and also period of remain YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 clinical trial . Essentially the most sophisticated rating programs require the selleck inhibitor number of several physiologic proportions, generating their particular used in real-time challenging. A new seriousness of illness credit score based on a few parameters that may be grabbed in electronic format would be of great benefit. Utilizing a machine-learning strategy referred to as chemical swarm seo, we tried to decrease the quantity of physiologic details obtained from the Intense Composition, Age group, and also Long-term Health Examination Intravenous technique with no sacrificing predictive exactness.\n\nDesign:\n\nRetrospective cohort study involving ICU acceptance from 3 years ago for you to 2011.\n\nSetting:\n\nEighty-six ICUs in 1949 U.Utes. medical centers wherever a serious Structure, Get older, as well as Long-term Wellbeing Analysis Four method ended up installed.\n\nPatients:\n\n81,087 admission, ones 48,474 did not have any absent valuations.}
In .”Background: Elderly people in long-term residential care NU7441 in vivo are at improved probability of treatment recommending and administration mistakes. The main aim of this research ended up being to study the incidence of medicine supervision errors within breastfeeding and household homes employing a bar code medicine government (BCMA) system Stattic .\n\nMethods: A prospective research was performed in Thirteen attention houses (Being unfaithful residential as well as Four medical). Info on all treatment companies for a cohort associated with 345 old people have been documented in real-time using a disguised declaration strategy. Every try simply by social care as well as nursing staff to administer treatment over a 3-month statement period of time had been analysed making use of BCMA information to determine the occurrence and kinds associated with possible medication administration problems (MAEs) and also no matter whether mistakes ended up prevented. Blunder categories integrated tries to administer medication in the incorrect occasion, for the completely wrong man or woman as well as discontinued medicine. Additional investigation when compared files with regard to residential and also convalescent homes. Furthermore, personnel were surveyed prior to BCMA method setup to gauge their particular knowing of management errors.\n\nResults: As many as 188,Two forty nine medicine administration efforts have been evaluated utilizing BCMA files. Usually each homeowner has been getting seven diverse medicines and it was encountered with 206 treatment supervision attacks every month. Through the observation time period, A couple of,289 potential MAEs have been documented for that 345 people; 90% regarding inhabitants had been encountered with one or more error. The most frequent (n = 1,021, 45% associated with mistakes) has been attempting to give medicine in the incorrect occasion. Within the 3-month statement interval, fifty percent (52%) associated with residents have been encountered with a life threatening blunder like wanting to provide treatment to the incorrect citizen. Blunder chance costs have been 1.43 because high (95% CI A single.32-1.Fifty six p < 2.001) throughout nursing homes as in household residences. The degree of non-compliance along with technique notifications had been minimal in the adjustments (2.075% regarding administrations). The particular pre-study review said only 12/41 staff giving drug treatments documented they were aware of possible supervision blunders within their care house.\n\nConclusions: Your likelihood of medication management blunders has elevated levels of long-term home attention. The bar code medication administration system can catch prescription medication government problems which will help prevent these kind of from occurring.”"Single-pulse (532 nm, 8 ns) micropatterning regarding rubber together with nanometric surface area modulation is demonstrated through irradiating through a diffracting pinhole. The irradiation outcomes acquired in fluences above the shedding limit AZD8931 clinical trial are seen as a deciphering electron and deciphering force microscopy and also disclose a great deal with Fresnel diffraction theory.}
Consequently, a new randomized medical trial with a blinded assessor was utilized within Twenty-two people with make impingement affliction. The key outcome procedures incorporated self-reported glenohumeral joint disability as well as soreness. Up coming, sufferers were evaluated regarding scapular positioning and neck muscle strength. The actual scapular-focused treatment method provided stretching out and scapular motor management instruction. The handle remedy included stretches, muscle mass friction, and odd turn cuff training. Main result procedures had been the particular neck impairment customer survey, tests pertaining to shoulder impingement affliction, clinical tests for scapular positioning, make discomfort (graphic analog level; VAS), and also muscle tissue energy. A large clinically crucial remedy influence in support of scapular generator handle education was discovered inside self-reported handicap (Cohen’s d Is equal to 2.Ninety three, g Equals Zero.025), and a moderate to significant scientifically Avapritinib important enhancement hurting throughout the Neer check, Hawkins analyze, as well as unfilled can easily examination (Cohen’s deb 2.Seventy six, One.Apr, along with Zero.Ninety two, respectively). Moreover, the actual new group shown a moderate (Cohen’s deb = 0.Sixty seven) enhancement within self-experienced discomfort sleeping (VAS), whilst the manage class did not adjust. The effects had been preserved in ninety days follow-up.”"Purpose associated with reviewRegarding issues related to screening process strategies for gestational diabetes (GDM) and convey important a conclusion, the latest materials inside the industry can be evaluated.Current findingsThere are not any randomized controlled tests analyzing the consequences of numerous screening process strategies on wellness outcomes. Merely handful of scientific studies investigated the newest verification tactics. There is an contract that will general CH5183284 GDM testing can be cost-effective. Several professional organisations altered their particular recommendations advocating universal GDM verification. At the moment, the particular National Higher education associated with Healthcare professionals as well as Gynecologists, the Culture regarding Healthcare professionals as well as Gynaecologists of Canada, as well as the You.K. National Commence for Health insurance and Medical Quality advocate routine risk-factor-based screening, whereas the Canada All forms of diabetes Affiliation, Australasian Diabetic issues while pregnant Modern society, Oughout.S. Preventive Companies Job Drive, and also ATLANTIC Diabetes mellitus while being pregnant suggest that most asymptomatic girls should be screened in 24-28 weeks’ gestation. The particular U . s . Diabetes Organization advises screening all ladies with a 75-g 2-h mouth carbs and glucose threshold analyze (oGTT). The Intercontinental Organization involving Diabetic issues and Being pregnant Research Teams advise zero glucose problem Akt inhibitor check, yet proposed brand-new testing standards introducing fasting sugar levels below A few.}
(H) 2009 Elsevier T./. All rights earmarked.In .”Resurrection vegetation might make it severe famine strain, however the main system to protect their photosynthetic device versus shortage stress can be not clear. Cyclic electron stream (CEF) has been recorded as a essential procedure for photoprotection in Arabidopsis and cigarettes. Many of us hypothesized in which CEF performs a huge role throughout protecting photosystem We (Pounds per square inch) as well as photosystem II (PSII) versus shortage strain for resurrection crops. To cope with this specific hypothesis, the end results involving mild shortage force on lighting power submitting within PSII as well as P700 redox state ended up examined in a resurrection seed Paraboea rufescens. Cyclic electron flow wasn’t activated below the photosynthetic photon fluctuation occurrence (PPFD) associated with Four hundred mu mol meters(-2) s(-1) inside leaves without having drought stress. However, CEF ended up being initialized under low gentle within simply leaves together with gentle shortage stress, and the efficient massive deliver of PSII drastically reduced. In the mean time, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) had been considerably ignited not simply beneath higher light but additionally under reduced light. Weighed against the handle, the small percentage of overall P700 that cannot be oxidized in a offered state (Pounds per square inch acceptor aspect restriction) under large mild was taken care of with low level associated with 0.One inch simply leaves using water debt, implying the over-reduction in the PSI acceptor facet had been avoided by the considerable excitement involving CEF. In addition, methyl viologen may drastically improve the PSII photo-inhibition induced selleck kinase inhibitor by higher lighting weighed against chloramphenicol. These results suggested in which CEF is a system to protect PSI along with PSII via famine anxiety inside resurrection crops.Inches”A brand new screening duration system that incorporates the cost condition of the particular projectile is applied for you to multiple scattering. The actual testing duration hails from a good interatomic prospective that will is the reason for electron-electron, electron-nuclear, as well as nuclear-nuclear connections while using Thomas-Fermi-Moliere potential. We all examined the demand state influence on several spreading angular withdrawals. All of us efficiently estimation your fee state outcomes and anticipate angular withdrawals. The present testing size is weighed against many lower power scattering studies and with O’Connor-Biersack prediction ideals. (C) The year 2013 Elsevier N./. Most protection under the law set aside.Inches”Amyloid peptide (Any experiment with) will be the main health proteins portion of plaques within Alzheimer’s, and the place Selleckchem SBC-115076 of the beta directly into Omipalisib oligomeric along with fibrillic assemblies is shown to always be an early event with the ailment path. Visual images in the progressive development involving nanoscale alterations in your morphology of the ‘beta’ oligomeric assemblies and also amyloid fibrils has become attained ex situ employing atomic power microscopy (AFM) in background conditions.}
The diagnosis of IgG4-related disease should be based on a combination
of typical histological, clinical and serological findings.”
“The VI-co-TFEMA-co-DVB (VTD) copolymer was synthesized by the solution polymerization of vinylimidazole (VI), trifluoroethylmethacrylate (TFEMA) and divinylbenzene (DVB). The VTD copolymer solution was quaternized with bromoethane (QVTD), and QVTD anion exchange membranes were prepared by the casting method. The chemical structure of the synthesized solution and the thermal stability of the prepared membrane were confirmed by FT-IR, H-1 NMR spectroscopy and TGA analysis. The following membrane properties were measured: bursting strength, thermal characteristics, chemical resistance, water content, ion exchange capacity, P5091 supplier electrical resistance and ionic conductivity. The maximum values of bursting strength, ion exchange capacity and ionic conductivity were 4.53 kgf/cm(2), 1.92 meq/g dry and 0.0088 S/cm, respectively. The minimum values of water content and electrical resistance learn more were 3.33% and 1.25 Omega cm(2), respectively. Compared to a commercially available membrane (AMX), the prepared membranes were more chemically resistant. After 150 charge-discharge cycles,
the maximum current efficiency, voltage efficiency, energy efficiency and discharge capacity of an all-vanadium redox flow battery were determined to be 94.6%, 79.6%, 75.3% and 47.1%, respectively. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Hostility is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and one of the mechanisms may involve heightened reactivity to mental stress. However, little research has been conducted in populations at high risk for
cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between hostility and acute stress responsivity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 140 individuals (median age [standard deviation] 63.71 [7.00] years) with Type 2 diabetes took part in laboratory-based experimental stress testing. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline, during two stress tasks, and 45 and 75 minutes later. Cynical GSK2126458 research buy hostility was assessed using the Cook Medley Cynical Hostility Scale. Results: Participants with greater hostility scores had heightened increases in IL-6 induced by the acute stress tasks (B = 0.082, p = .002), independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, household income, time of testing, medication, and baseline IL-6. Hostility was inversely associated with cortisol output poststress (B = -0.017, p = .002), independent of covariates. No associations between hostility and blood pressure or heart rate responses were observed.
“Obese individuals are characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state. Increased levels Fer-1 ic50 of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, have been observed in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that genes encoding proteins involved in
the anti-inflammatory and immune response are differentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue of obese men with or without the metabolic syndrome. Among these genes, the interferon-gamma-inducible protein 30 (IFI30), CD163 molecule (CD163), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), were selected for further genetic analyses. The aim of the study was to verify whether IFI30, CD163, CXCL9 and TSLP gene polymorphisms contribute to explain the inter-individual variability of the inflammatory profile of obesity assessed by plasma high-sensitivity CRP concentrations. A total of 1185 severely obese individuals were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering most of the sequence-derived genetic variability at check details the IFI30, CD 163, CXCL9 and TSLP gene loci (total of 27 SNPs). Following measurement of plasma CRP levels, subjects were divided into two groups, low vs. high
using the median value of plasma CRP levels (8.31 mg/L) as a cutoff point. Genotype frequencies were compared between groups. Associations between genotypes and plasma CRP levels (continuous variable) were also tested after adjustments for age, sex, smoking and BMI. The rs11554159 and rs7125 IFI30 SNPs showed a significant difference in genotype frequencies (p < 0.05) between subgroups
of low vs. high plasma CRP levels (wild type homozygotes: rs11554159 = 47% vs. 55%, rs7125 = Tariquidar mouse 31% vs. 24%, for low vs. high CRP groups, respectively). The association between rs11554159 and CRP levels as a continuous variable remained significant (p = 0.004). Both carriers of the GA and AA genotypes demonstrated, on average, a 13% lower CRP levels in comparison with GG homozygotes. No association was observed between SNPs in the CD163. CXCL9 and TSLP genes and CRP levels. The IFI30 rs11554159 polymorphism could partially explain the inter-individual variability observed in the inflammatory profile associated with obesity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“To compare the outcome and complications of augmentation cystoplasty before or after renal transplantation in children with neurogenic bladders, with those after kidney transplantation in children with normal bladders.\n\nAugmentation cystoplasty preceded transplantation in 21 children (group 1) and after transplantation in 23 (group 2) operated from 1985 to 2006; these two groups were compared with a control group of 45 children with a normal bladder (group 3) who also received a transplant, for kidney function, episodes of urinary tract infection (UTI), surgical and medical complications.
Materials were synthesized by conventional solid state route and showed bright orange-red emission under UV excitation. Emission spectra contain sharp and well resolved Sm3+
(4)G(5/2)-> H-6(J) transitions indicating a strong crystal-field effect. In case of gadolinium compound energy transfer between Gd3+ and Sm3+ was detected. The luminescent kinetics of the Sm3+ in analyzed powders is characterized by single exponential decay and experimental values vary in the range 2.2-2.4 ms. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Oxidative damage has been proposed as one of the possible mechanisms involved in the development of dialysis-related complications. Strengthening the defense system by supplementing antioxidants selleck screening library selleck chemicals may provide protection against oxidative damage. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate oxidant and antioxidant status in chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis and the effect of UbiQ(100) supplementation on oxidant and antioxidant status. The blood samples were analyzed for quantitation of MDA as index of lipid peroxide, nitric oxide, vitamin E and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Significantly increased levels of serum lipid peroxide and decreased levels
of nitric oxide, vitamin E, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were noticed in the patients both before and after hemodialysis, as compared to control subjects. However, significant reduction in lipid peroxide and improvement in nitric B-Raf inhibitor clinical trial oxide, vitamin E and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were observed after supplementary treatment
“Aim of the study: Atherosclerosis represents active inflammation in which leukocytes play significant role. Coronary collateral development is a response to myocardial ischaemia. In this study we aimed to investigate the association of the leukocytes with coronary collateral development in patients with non ST-elevated acute coronary syndromes (NST-ACS). Material and methods: A total of 251 consecutive patients were hospitalized in our hospital with a diagnosis of NST-ACS. The blood samples were collected 1-hour after admission to the hospital and peripheral leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) were examined. All patients underwent coronary angiography. The coronary collateral vessels (CCV) are graded according to the Rentrop scoring system. Results: Group 1 consisted of 146 patients with Rentrop 0 and Group 2 consisted of 105 patients with Rentrop I, 2 and 3. The presence of CCV was significantly associated with neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). In subgroup analyses, higher NLR was significantly associated with good CCV development in patients with NST-ACS.
4% versus 24.8%, P=0.012) but not for major cytogenetic responses (49.1% versus 44.2%, P=0.462). The rate of major molecular responses was also significantly better at 3 and 6 months
in the high-dose arm (month 3: 14.9% versus 3.5%, P=0.003; month 6: 32.5% versus 8.8%, P < 0.001). Overall and progression-free survival rates were comparable between arms, but event-free survival was significantly worse in the high-dose arm (P=0.014).\n\nConclusions\n\nStandard-dose imatinib remains the standard of care for pre-treated patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00327262).”
“Early-onset multiple sclerosis (EOMS) is defined as the first presentation of symptoms in childhood (before the age of 16 years). EOMS occurs in about 0.4% to 10.5% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.\n\nIn this retrospective population-based find more study we aimed to describe the clinical/paraclinical details and frequency of epileptic seizures in Iranian EOMS patients registered with the Isfahan Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) from April 2003 to July 2010. EOMS cases were extracted from the Isfahan total MS cohort and included 3522 patients.\n\nA total of 117 EOMS patients (19 males and 98 females) with a mean age at onset of 14.2 +/- 2.0 years (range: 7-16 years) were extracted from our database (3.3% of the total cohort). Of cases, ten (one male and nine females) had experienced at least two epileptic seizures, providing a crude
prevalence of 8.5%. The frequency of epilepsy in EOMS patients (8.5%, 10/117) was significantly greater selleck inhibitor (P < 0.001) than that of non-EOMS cohort (2.0%, 71/3405). Epileptic seizures occurred before MS onset in two patients, after MS onset in seven, and at MS onset in one as the presenting symptom of the disease.\n\nOur findings mostly indicate an excessive prevalence of epileptic seizures in Iranian EOMS patients (8.5%), which is higher than any other report concerning seizures or epileptic seizures in a large MS series.”
“A detailed GDC-0068 evaluation of the kinetics of domino free radical photopolymerization
(DFRP) based on phototriggered base proliferation reaction and redox initiation was described in the condition of eliminating the heat of polymerization via reacting in the thin polymer films. First, domino photoinitiating system made a substantial breakthrough in the photoefficiency of amine generation in contrast to photocaged base system, exhibiting marked improvement in the photosensitivity. Second, both the structural feature of base amplifier (BA) and reaction temperature as two important factors impacting the proliferation rate have been detailed. Third, different domino photoinitiating components, such as BAs, peroxides, and acrylates, were investigated in the thin polymer films. It is shown that both primary and secondary BAs are efficient catalysts for DFRP. Furthermore, polymerization rate shows a consistent dependence on the pK(a) value of the proliferated amine.
0 mm (range, 3-10 mm), and the pulley complex, 7.2 mm (range, 4-15 mm). Sixty-seven patients (32.4%) had a pulley tear: 48 shoulders had anteromedial pulley tears, 32 posterolateral,
with 13 combined anteromedial-posterolateral lesions. Patients with pulley tears were significantly older than those without (57 vs 44 years, P < .001). For anteromedial pulley tears, the mean width of the long head of the biceps tendon was significantly larger in the torn group (6.4 vs 5.8 mm, P = .012). The anteromedial or posterolateral pulley tears were significantly associated with subluxation or dislocation of the long head of the biceps tendon (P = .001), with a pulley torn in all 27 cases of biceps dislocation. In 173 shoulders with a centered Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor long head of the biceps tendon, the pulley was torn in 36 (23 anteromedial, 18 posterolateral [ with 5 being combined]). Pulley tears and rotator cuff injury showed a significant association (P < .001). Superior labral anterior posterior lesions were significantly associated with anteromedial (P < .008) and posterolateral pulley tears (P < .021).\n\nConclusion: Pulley lesions are fairly common in patients undergoing
arthroscopic surgery Bafilomycin A1 inhibitor and were found in 32.4% of this prospective cohort (67 of 207). Current consensus indicates that pulley lesions are often associated with rotator cuff tears. This series also showed correlations with superior labral anterior posterior tears, biceps instability, and long head of the biceps tendon tears.”
“Computing volumes and surface areas of molecular structures is generally considered to be a solved problem, however, comparisons presented in this review show that different ways of computing surface areas and volumes can yield dramatically different values. Volumes and surface areas are the most basic geometric properties of structures, and estimating these becomes especially important for large scale simulations when individual components are being assembled
in protein complexes or drugs being fitted into proteins. Good approximations of Fosbretabulin ic50 volumes and surfaces are derived from Delaunay tessellations, but these values can differ significantly from those from the rolling ball approach of Lee and Richards (3V webserver). The origin of these differences lies in the extended parts and the less well packed parts of the proteins, which are ignored in some approaches. Even though surface areas and volumes from the two approaches differ significantly, their correlations are high. Atomic models have been compared, and the poorly packed regions of proteins are found to be most different between the two approaches. The Delaunay complexes have been explored for both fully atomic and for coarse-grained representations of proteins based on only C-alpha atoms.
Finally, we show that the intracellularly located UL20 also is subject to lysosomal degradation in the context of viral infection. Altogether, from these data, we hypothesize that UL20 is destined to efficiently sequester yet-to-be defined cellular selleck proteins for degradation in lysosomes.”
“An increasing number of pharmaceutical active substances are produced through biotechnological processes. For sustained and safe growth of the host organisms as well as optimal expression, purification, and formulation of the product, biotechnological manufacturing processes need optimal and robust
environmental conditions, which are attained through the use of buffers, chelators, and antibiotics, beside nutrients. These ancillary substances are drained with the wastewater to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and are released after treatment with the effluent to receiving waters. The potential risks of such substances to WWTPs and surface waters were investigated. Three common buffers (morpholinoethane sulfonic acid [MES], morpholinopropanesulfonic acid [MOPS], 1,4-piperazine (diethanesulfonic acid) [PIPES]), one chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]), and one antibiotic (gentamycin) were searched in the literature for environmental data or tested for biodegradability and inhibition of activated sludge as well AZD9291 order buy TPCA-1 as acute toxicity to
algae, daphnids, and fish. Amounts of the ancillary substances used in the European biotechnological production plants of F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd in Basle (Switzerland) and Penzberg (Germany), and actual wastewater fluxes through the respective WWTP, as well as realistic dilution factors for the local receiving water, were documented. Based on this information, site-specific predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for the WWTPs and surface waters in Basle and Penzberg were extrapolated. These PECs were compared with predicted no effect concentrations
(PNECs) for the WWTP and surface waters, derived from sludge inhibition and ecotoxicity results, respectively. For all five ancillary substances investigated, all PEC/PNEC risk characterization ratios are <1, indicating no significant risk to the WWTPs or the receiving waters at both sites. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012;31:681687. (C) 2011 SETAC”
“To evaluate the potential invasiveness of pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus introduced to northwestern European inland waters, growth and reproduction traits were examined in ten populations along a trajectory spanning northwestern Europe (Norway, England, Holland, Belgium and France) and evaluated in light of published dataset from Europe. In the 848 pumpkinseed captured, maximum age was 3-4 years, with a sex ratio near unity in all but one population.