Each principle is organized around three parts: (1) a brief description; (2) relevance to landscape ecological
research; and (3) recommended research topics. Using these principles, I suggest potential avenues to advance landscape ecological research about biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being.”
“We have determined the technological properties of four lines containing combinations of three HMW-GS transgenes, encoding HMW-GS 1Ax1, 1Dx5 and 1Dy10L These lines were produced by conventional crossing check details of three single transgenic lines of the bread wheat cultivar Anza that contains the endogenous HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2 + 1Dy12 and 1Bx7* + 1By8 and is null for the Glu-A1 locus. Consequently, the total number of HMW-GS ranged from 4 in the control line Anza to 7 in line T618 which contains all three HMW-GS transgenes. The lines
were studied over two years using a range of widely used grain and dough testing methods. TPX-0005 All lines with transgenic subunits showed higher levels of glutenin proteins than the Anza control, and these differences were highly significant for lines T616, T617 and T618, containing, respectively, the transgenes encoding HMW-GS 1Ax1 and 1Dy10, 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 and 1Ax1, 1Dx5 and 1Dy10. These increases in glutenin levels are compensated by lower levels of gliadins present in transgenic lines. These changes affected the ratio of polymeric to monomeric gluten proteins (poly:mono), the ratio of HMW-GS to LMW-GS (HMW:LMW) and the contents of individual 1Ax, 1Bx, 1By, 1Dx and 1Dy subunits. Transgenic lines expressing subunit 1Dy10 together with x-type subunits (T616, T617 and T618) were superior to line T606, which HSP mutation had only increases in x-type subunits. In particular, the combination of transgenic subunits 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 (line T617) gave better dough theological properties than the other combinations of transgenic subunits. For example, dough development time and stability were increased by 3.5-fold and 8.5-fold, respectively, while the mixing tolerance index (MTI) was decreased by 3.3-fold in line T617 with respect to the control line. Alveograph analyses showed that all four transgenic
combinations had increased P values compared to the Anza control but subunit 1Dx5 greatly reduced the extensibility (L). These results show that stacking HMW-GS transgenes by conventional crossing is a valid strategy for the improvement of wheat quality, with different effects being related to the different HMW-GS combinations. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“One of the challenges facing farmers today is to ensure adequate integration of natural resources into animal feeds. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Khaya senegalensis (KS) leaves on the performance of growing male rabbits, carcass traits and biochemical as well as hematological parameters. Thirty New Zealand White male growing rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits per group).
“Background: Patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and those with treatment-sensitive depression (TSD) responded to antidepressants differently. Previous
studies have commonly shown that patients with TRD or TSD had abnormal neural activity in different brain regions. In the present study, we used a coherence-based ReHo (Cohe-ReHo) approach to test the hypothesis that patients with TRD or TSD had abnormal neural activity in different brain regions.\n\nMethods: Twenty-three patients with TRD, 22 with TSD, and 19 healthy MAPK Inhibitor Library subjects (HS) matched with gender, age, and education level participated in the study.\n\nResults: ANOVA analysis revealed widespread differences in Cohe-ReHo values among the three groups in different brain regions which included bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum, left inferior
temporal gyrus, left occipital cortex, and both sides of fusiform gyrus. Compared to HS, lower Cohe-ReHo values were observed in TRD group in bilateral superior frontal gyrus and left cerebellum; in contrast, in TSD group, lower Cohe-ReHo values were mainly found in bilateral superior frontal gyrus. Compared to TSD group, TRD group had lower Cohe-ReHo in bilateral cerebellum and higher Cohe-ReHo in left fusiform AZD6244 concentration gyrus. There was a negative correlation between Cohe-ReHo values of the left fusiform gyrus and illness duration in the pooled patients (r = 0.480, p = 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of cerebellar Cohe-ReHo values differentiating TRD from TSD were 83% and 86%, respectively.\n\nConclusions: Compared to healthy controls, both TRD and TSD patients shared the majority of brain regions with abnormal neural activity. However, the lower Cohe-ReHo values in the cerebellum
might be as a marker to differentiate TRD from TSD with high sensitivity and specificity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To buy C59 Wnt estimate the prevalence and identify the factors associated with previous pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or incontinence surgery.\n\nStudy design: In a cross-sectional study, all women who were aged 45-85 years and registered in eight general practices were invited to participate. They completed standardised questionnaires (the urinary distress inventory (UDI) and the defaecatory distress inventory (DDI)) and answered questions on previous pelvic floor surgery.\n\nResults: Out of 2979 women eligible for this study, 1380 women were included. Previous surgery had been performed in 119 women. The prevalence of surgery increased with age, with a prevalence of 20.3% in the age group 76-85 years. Pelvic floor symptoms were more prevalent in women who had undergone previous surgery, with higher UDI and DDI scores. Factors associated with previous surgery were age, higher BMI, POP symptoms during pregnancy and previous 123 hernia surgery.\n\nConclusion: In The Netherlands, approximately one in five women will undergo surgery for POP and/or incontinence during her lifetime.
There is much room for future improvement.”
“In this study, apparent usability and affective quality were integrated in a design framework called the Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model (UPEEM). The UPEEM was validated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The methodology consists of four phases namely product selection, attribute identification, design alternative generation, and design alternative evaluation.
The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. In the attribute identification stage, design elements of the product were identified. The possible values of these elements were also determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the attributes will be varied in the design
alternative stage and which of the attributes Dinaciclib significantly contribute to affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability in the design evaluation stage. Results suggest that product attributes related to form are relevant in eliciting intense affect and perception of usability in mobile phones especially those directly related to functionality and aesthetics. This study considered only four product attributes among so many due to the constraints of the research design employed. Attributes related to aesthetic perception of a product enhance apparent usability such as those related to dimensional ratios. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.”
“We VEGFR inhibitor 123 present an updated assessment of soil contamination due to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant on 11 March 2011. A safe limit for the spatial dose rate (micro-Sv/h) of gamma rays from Cs-134,Cs-137 has been established in this work. Based on this value, the highly contaminated region within Fukushima Prefecture that must be decontaminated could be defined. Moreover, www.selleckchem.com/products/qnz-evp4593.html a conceptual model for the
chemical speciation that occurred during the accident has been delineated. The compound model Cs2CO3 was found to be meaningful and practical (non-radioactive) to simulate contamination in our decontamination experiments. Finally, we explain the mechanism of action of our soil remediation technique, which effectively reduces the total volume of contaminated soil by isolating the highly Cs-adsorptive clay fraction. The adsorption of non-radioactive Cs atoms on clay particles with diameters <25 mu m were analyzed using micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique to approach the anterior inferior basal ganglia.
Systematic electronic searches (Cochrane library, Medline, Embase, Clinical trial registers) were GSK1120212 clinical trial conducted in May 2009. Included trials reported completed cure of warts and data were extracted from these
trials. We performed random-effects meta-analysis and assessed heterogeneity using the I(2) statistic and conducted a pooled analysis of each treatment. We found 77 relevant studies of which the majority were of low methodological quality. Salicylic acid (SA) was superior to placebo with a risk ratio (RR) for cure of 1.60 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.24]. Cryotherapy was not statistically better than placebo, RR 0 89 (95% CI 0.27-2.92), but aggressive cryotherapy was significantly better than gentle cryotherapy with a RR of 2 06 (95% 1.20-3.52). Combined therapy of SA and cryotherapy buy PF-04929113 had a higher cure rate than either SA or cryotherapy alone. The results of the pooled analysis found a cure rate of 23% (5-73%) in placebo trials, 52% (0-87%) in SA trials, 49% (0-69%) in cryotherapy trials, 54% (45-75%) in aggressive cryotherapy trials and 58% (38-78%) in the combined cryotherapy and SA trials. Aside from the use of SA and aggressive cryotherapy there is insufficient evidence from RCTs to support the use of other therapies. Higher quality evidence is needed to evaluate other therapies.”
“Psoriasis vulgaris is considered a chronic inflammatory disease, but its immunopathogenesis has not been well understood. The tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced
protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene functions in negative-feedback regulation of inflammation, and its single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with psoriasis. However, the relationship Elafibranor price between the expression level of the TNFAIP3 gene in immune cells and psoriasis is not known so far. In the present study, TNFAIP3 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 44 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 30 healthy controls were determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. We found that expression of TNFAIP3 mRNA in all patients negatively correlated
with the psoriatic area and severity index (PASI) (r = -0.5126; P = 0.0004) as well as with the percentage of body surface area affected by psoriasis (r = -0.5013; P = 0.0005). Patients were divided into mild and severe groups based on the mean PASI score. Expression of TNFAIP3 mRNA in the mild group was higher than that in the severe group (P = 0.0064). 432 Moreover, compared with that in healthy controls, the expression of TNFAIP3 mRNA in the mild group was significantly upregulated (P = 0.0004), but the expression of TNFAIP3 mRNA in the severe group was not. These results suggest that the expression level of TNFAIP3 plays an important role in the pathology of psoriasis vulgaris and that the loss of upregulation of TNFAIP3 expression may contribute to the severity of psoriasis vulgaris.”
“Two alternative hypotheses explain the degradation of organics in the Viking Labeled Release experiment on Mars.
\n\nResults: (1) Cognitive function is severely impaired in C5aR(-/-) mice, coincident with the down-regulated CREB/CEBP pathway in AZ 628 research buy brain. (2) Either the application of recombinant-human-C5a (hrC5a) or exogenous expression of C5a in the brain of a mouse model (C5a/GFAP) enhances this pathway. (3) Application of hrC5a in brain slices from Tg2576 mice significantly improves deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP), while this effect is blocked by a specific AMPA receptor antagonist. (4) Searching for a pharmacological approach to locally mediate C5a responses in the brain, we found that low-dose human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment improves synaptic plasticity and cognitive function
through C5a-mediated induction of the CREB/CEBP pathway, while the levels of A beta in the brain are not significantly affected.\n\nConclusion: This study for the first PF-00299804 cost time provides novel evidence suggesting that C5a may beneficially influence cognitive function in AD through an up-regulation of AMPA-CREB signaling pathway. IVIG may systematically improve cognitive function in AD brain by passing A beta
toxicity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depression in persons with epilepsy (PWE) and the strength of association between these 2 conditions.\n\nMethods: The MEDLINE (1948-2012), EMBASE (1980-2012), and PsycINFO (1806-2012) databases, reference lists of retrieved articles, and conference abstracts were searched. Content experts were also consulted. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and extracted data. For inclusion, studies were population-based, original research, and 123 reported on epilepsy and depression. Estimates of depression prevalence among PWE and of the association between epilepsy and depression (estimated with reported odds ratios [ORs]) are provided.\n\nResults: Of 7,106 abstracts screened, 23 articles reported on 14 unique data sources. Nine studies reported on 29,891 PWE who had an overall
prevalence of active (current or past-year) depression of 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.6%-28.31%). Five of CDK inhibitor the 14 studies reported on 1,217,024 participants with an overall OR of active depression of 2.77 (95% CI 2.09-3.67) in PWE. For lifetime depression, 4 studies reported on 5,454 PWE, with an overall prevalence of 13.0% (95% CI 5.1-33.1), and 3 studies reported on 4,195 participants with an overall OR of 2.20 (95% CI 1.07-4.51) for PWE.\n\nConclusions: Epilepsy was significantly associated with depression and depression was observed to be highly prevalent in PWE. These findings highlight the importance of proper identification and management of depression in PWE. Neurology (R) 2013;80:590-599″
“Mammalian prions cause fatal neurodegenerative conditions including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in animals(1).
These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and form apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) as intermediates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. AP sites are also representative DNA damages formed by spontaneous hydrolysis. The AP sites block DNA polymerase and a mismatch nucleobase is inserted opposite the AP sites by polymerization to cause acute toxicities and mutations. Thus, AP site specific compounds have attracted much attention for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we have developed nucleobase-polyamine conjugates as the AP site binding ligand by expecting that the nucleobase part would play a role in the specific
recognition of the nucleobase opposite the AP site by the Watson-Crick check details base pair formation and that the polyamine part should contribute to the access of the ligand to the AP site by a non-specific interaction to the DNA phosphate backbone. The nucleobase conjugated with 3,4 3′-diaminodipropylamine (A-ligand, G-ligand, C-ligand, T-ligand and U-ligand) showed a specific stabilization of the duplex containing the AP site depending MK-8776 research buy on the complementary combination with the nucleobase opposite the AP site; that
is A-ligand to T, G-ligand to C, C-ligand to G, T- and U-ligand to A. The thermodynamic binding parameters clearly indicated that the specific stabilization is due to specific binding of the ligands to the complementary AP site. These results have suggested that the complementary base pairs of the Watson-Crick type are formed at the www.selleckchem.com/ALK.html AP site. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“GATA-1 controls hematopoietic development by activating and repressing gene transcription, yet the in vivo mechanisms that specify these opposite activities are unknown. By examining the composition
of GATA-1-associated protein complexes in a conditional erythroid rescue system as well as through the use of tiling arrays we detected the SCL/TAL1, LMO2, Ldb1, E2A complex at all positively acting GATA-1-bound elements examined. Similarly, the SCL complex is present at all activating GATA elements in megakaryocytes and mast cells. In striking contrast, at sites where GATA-1 functions as a repressor, the SCL complex is depleted. A DNA-binding defective form of SCL maintains association with a subset of active GATA elements indicating that GATA-1 is a key determinant for SCL recruitment. Knockdown of LMO2 selectively impairs activation but not repression by GATA-1. ETO-2, an SCL-associated protein with the potential for transcription repression, is also absent from GATA-1-repressed genes but, unlike SCL, fails to accumulate at GATA-1 activated genes. Together, these studies identify the SCL complex as a critical and consistent determinant of positive GATA-1 activity in multiple GATA-1-regulated hematopoietic cell lineages. (Blood.
These compounds comprise a new class of promising broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agents. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A novel human leukocyte antigen-C (HLA-C) allele, C*07:314, was identified in a French acute Selleck ML323 lymphoblastic leukemia patient.”
headache is a severely debilitating disorder that can remain unrelieved by current pharmacotherapy. Alongside ablative neurosurgical procedures, neuro modulatory treatments of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and occipital nerve simulation have emerged in the last few years as effective treatments for medically refractory cluster headaches. Pioneers in the field have sought to publish guidelines for neurosurgical treatment; however, only small case series with learn more 123 limited long-term follow-up have been published. Controversy remains over which surgical treatments
are best and in which circumstances to intervene. Here we review current data on neurosurgical interventions for chronic cluster headache focusing upon DBS and occipital nerve stimulation, and discuss the indications for and putative mechanisms of DBS including translational insights from functional neuroimaging, diffusion weighted tractography, magnetoencephalography and invasive neurophysiology. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background\n\nSeveral metabolic derangements associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) have been associated with a better outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including hyperlipidemia and obesity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DM would have
a positive effect on the motor and cognitive findings of ALS.\n\nMethods:\n\nWe compared data from ALS patients with pre-morbid DM (ALS-DM; n = 175) versus without DM (ALS; n = Salubrinal solubility dmso 2196) with regard to the age of onset, rate of motor progression, survival, and neuropsychological test performance.\n\nResults:\n\nThe age of onset was later for women, Caucasians and patients with bulbar-onset ALS. However, we also found that after adjusting for gender, ethnicity and site of onset, DM was associated with a 4-year later onset of ALS (ALS = 56.3, ALS-DM = 60.3, P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion:\n\nDiabetes mellitus type 2 may delay the onset of motor symptoms in ALS. These findings support other studies suggesting a relationship between the pathophysiology of ALS and metabolic derangements. Further investigations are needed to ascertain whether manipulating metabolic parameters would improve outcomes in ALS.”
“Background: Gantenerumab is a fully human anti-A beta monoclonal antibody in clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD).\n\nObjectives: To investigate whether treatment with gantenerumab leads to a measurable reduction in the level of A beta amyloid in the brain and to elucidate the mechanism of amyloid reduction.
Libraries generated following this strategy were evaluated in terms of their folding competence and their functional proficiency, an observation that was formalized as a Structure-Function Loop Adaptability value. Molecular details about the function and structure of some variants were obtained by enzyme kinetics and circular dichroism. This strategy yields functional variants that retain find more the original activity at higher frequencies, suggesting a new strategy for protein engineering that incorporates
a more divergent sequence exploration beyond that limited to point mutations. We discuss how this approach may provide insights into the mechanism of enzyme evolution and function. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“For clinicians, soft connective tissue integration (STI), one of the critical issues for dental implant success, is usually tested using the fibroblasts monolayer regime. Therefore, we aimed at an extension of this regime by employing interactive gingival fibroblast-keratinocyte cocultures (CCs) as an in vivo-like test platform. In the extended regime, 13 STI-relevant genes were analyzed in response to five different titanium implant biomaterial
surfaces. The genes quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction were categorized as pro supportive or contra supportive, that is, nonsupportive for cell growth on an engineered surface. Monocultures had higher levels of Proteasome inhibitor contra supportive gene expression, but the fibroblast-keratinocyte CC had two out of five of the titanium XMU-MP-1 clinical trial surfaces with more pro supportive gene expression than contra supportive gene expression. We defined this change from contra supportive gene expression to pro supportive gene expression by developing the “relative supportive difference” index. Hence, interactive CCs exhibit valuable supportive effects on the expression of STI-relevant genes, possibly via physiological cell-to-cell-interactions. Our results render interactive gingival CCs suitable as a test platform
for dental implant-related STI under more in vivo-like conditions.”
“A study on the prevalence of hydatidosis in cattle, goats and sheep was carried out in Ngorongoro district of Arusha region, Tanzania. A 4-years data records from four slaughter slabs were retrieved and analysed. In addition, meat inspection was done in the same slaughter slabs for nine months and 64 households were interviewed to assess the community awareness on hydatidosis. Results showed the overall prevalence of hydatidosis to be 47.9%. Species prevalence of 48.7%, 34.7% and 63.8% in cattle, goats and sheep respectively was recorded. Of 174 cysts examined in cattle, 37 (21.3%) were fertile, 126 (72.4%) were sterile and 11 (6.3%) were calcified. Out of 215 goats and 67 sheep cysts examined, 52 (24.7%) and 26 (38.8%) were fertile, 138 (64.2%) and 38 (56.7%) were sterile, 24 (11.2%) and 3 (4.5%) were calcified respectively.
\n\n3. The birds stunned with N-2 displayed the highest initial reduction in muscle pH, but after 4 h post mortem there were no differences in pH values associated with the various CAS methods.\n\n4. The CAS method alone had no statistically significant effect on the quality of turkey breast muscle when the chilling speed was rapid (0 degrees C for 4 h, followed by storage at 4 degrees C). When the chilling rate BI 2536 concentration was slowed (20 degrees C for 4 h followed by storage at 4 degrees C), a significant decrease in cooking loss and in Warner-Bratzler shear force was recorded for birds stun-killed with
CO2.\n\n5. This study shows that anoxic stun-killing with N-2 had no adverse effects on meat quality despite the rapid post mortem pH decrease. The CAS with N-2 allows Selleckchem DAPT rapid cooling of carcases without the risk of cold shortening, whereas with 4 CO2-stun-killing of turkeys, the rate of chilling should be slower. Concerning meat quality, all the CAS methods tested were suitable for stunning turkeys.”
“Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of pro-inflammatory
cytokines and has been linked to the development of coronary artery disease. No study has systematically assessed the relationship between local epicardial fat volume (EFV) and myocardial perfusion defects. We analyzed EFV in patients undergoing SPECT myocardial perfusion CHIR-99021 manufacturer imaging combined with computed tomography (CT) for attenuation correction. Low-dose CT without contrast was performed in 396 consecutive patients undergoing SPECT imaging for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Regional thickness, cross-sectional areas, and total EFV were assessed. 295 patients had normal myocardial perfusion scans and 101 had abnormal perfusion scans. Mean EFVs in normal, ischemic, and infarcted hearts were 99.8 +/- A 82.3 cm(3), 156.4 +/- A 121.9 cm(3), and 96.3 +/- A 102.1 cm(3), respectively (P smaller than 0.001). Reversible perfusion defects were associated with increased local EFV compared to normal
perfusion in the distribution of the right (69.2 +/- A 51.5 vs 46.6 +/- A 32.0 cm(3); P = 0.03) and left anterior descending coronary artery (87.1 +/- A 76.4 vs 46.7 +/- A 40.6 cm(3); P = 0.005). Our results demonstrate increased regional epicardial fat in patients with active myocardial ischemia compared to patients with myocardial scar or normal perfusion on nuclear perfusion scans. Our results suggest a potential role for cardiac CT to improve risk stratification in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.”
“We report a method for detecting DNA single-base polymerization using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistor (FET)-based redox potential sensor array.
\n\nPatients/methods Twenty patients with known coronary artery disease receiving 75mg/day clopidogrel were recruited and given 150 mg/day clopidogrel for 30 days, then returned to 75 mg/day for an additional 30 days. Platelet function was assessed through light-transmittance aggregometry (LTA) and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay at baseline, 30 days, and 60 days.\n\nResults Mean platelet inhibition was significantly improved with the increased maintenance dose when measured by the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (P2Y12 reaction units: 191 +/- 15 vs. 158 +/- 17, P=0.013), but not when measured by LTA (LTA-adenosine diphosphate 5: 40 +/- 3 vs 36 +/- 3, P=0.11; LTA-adenosine diphosphate
20: 50 +/- 3 vs. 47 +/- 3, P=0.23). However, only 50% of individual patients experienced improved platelet inhibition, as measured
by the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, when treated with the increased maintenance dose. Furthermore, TNF-alpha inhibitor poor baseline platelet response did not predict improved responsiveness at the increased dose.\n\nConclusion Despite changing the population’s mean antiplatelet response, an increased maintenance dose of clopidogrel did not improve antiplatelet response in a substantial number of patients; nor did baseline platelet function predict response to a higher maintenance dose. Coron Artery Dis 20:207-213 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces include ventricles and cerebral and spinal subarachnoid spaces. CSF motion is a combined effect of CSF production rate and superimposed selleckchem cardiac pulsations. Knowledge of CSF dynamics has benefited considerably from the development of phase-contrast (PC) MRI. There are several disorders such as communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus,
Chiari malformation, syringomyelic cyst and arachnoid cyst that can change the CSF dynamics. The aims of this pictorial review are to outline the PC MRI technique, CSF physiology and cerebrospinal space anatomy, to describe a group of congenital and acquired disorders that can alter the CSF dynamics, and to assess the use of PC MRI in the assessment of various central nervous system abnormalities.”
“Objective: Mitral Apoptosis inhibitor regurgitation (MR) due to commissural prolapse/flail can be corrected by suturing the margins of the anterior and 432 posterior leaflets in the commissural area (commissural closure). The long-term results of this type of repair are unknown. Our aim was to assess the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of this technique up to 15 years after surgery. Methods: From 1997 to 2007, 125 patients (age, 56.8 +/- 15.7 years; left ventricular ejection fraction, 58.1% +/- 7.1%) with MR due to pure commissural prolapse/flail of 1 or both leaflets underwent commissural closure combined with annuloplasty. The etiology of the disease was degenerative in 88.8% and endocarditis in 11.2%. The commissural region involved was posteromedial in 96 patients (76.8%) and anterolateral in 29 (23.