Chance constraint model is a way to

solve the uncertain p

Chance constraint model is a way to

solve the uncertain problem which uses expected value, chance measure and realization probability to investigate the situation. Chance constraint Selumetinib ic50 model needs the distribution function of the uncertain element which is difficult to measure. Meanwhile, the distribution function cannot include all situations. The service quality will be affected by the negative scenarios, whose demand is beyond the distribution function. However, robust optimization model can largely avoid this dilemma. Both expected objective value and deviation between actual objective value and expected value are considered [8, 9]. The result can decrease the occurrence of negative scenarios. Robust optimization has

been used in network plan [10], routing optimization [11], scheduling problem [12], and so forth. In China, Wang and He [13] used chance constraint model to solve railway logistic center location problem. Sun et al. [14] applied the robust optimization on the feeder bus network timetable schedule problem. The main purpose of this paper is to provide robust optimization model of railway freight transport center location problem and a method to solve it. The location optimization model considers service coverage constraint. The adaptive clonal selection algorithm (ACSA) is combined with the Cloud Model (CM) called cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) to solve the model. The outline of this paper is as follows: Section 2 introduces the robust optimization model of freight center location problem. In Section 3, a new algorithm is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the application

of the model and algorithm. 2. Robust Optimization Model of Railway Freight Transport Center Location Problem (1) Decision Variables. Scenario specifies the realization of stochastic demand. And transport demand of the scenario is known. The objective of robust model is to find the location of railway freight transport centers and the assignment between centers and shippers in all scenarios. The location decision and assignment are treated as decision variables. Those are as follows. xijk equals 1 if shipper i is assigned to center j in scenario k. Otherwise, it equals 0. yjk equals 1 if a railway freight transport center is located at candidate center j in scenario k. Otherwise, it equals 0. (2) Objective Function (a) Objective Function of Deterministic Dacomitinib Model. Cost of location problem in scenario k includes two parts: the first is construction cost of railway freight transport centers; the second is transport cost between shippers and the centers. The objective function of scenario k is as follows: zk=μ1c∑i∈I ∑j∈Jhikdijxijk+μ2∑j∈JCjyjk, (1) where c is unit transport cost of transport demand from shipper to railway freight transport center. μ1 and μ2 are weight of transport cost and construction cost in objective function. They are defined in advance.

It is also possible to manually enter the numerical


It is also possible to manually enter the numerical

values of the leaves edges in two columns. The environment of this program and the MLC configuration are shown in Figures ​Figures66 and ​and77. Figure 6 A view of multileaf program Figure 7 Multileaf collimator configuration CONCLUSIONS The projected width of each leaf on the isocenter p38 MAPK signaling accelerator (usually at 100 cm from the source) is 10 mm. The positioning accuracy of each leaf is approximately 1.4 mm. Since the screws inherently have an axial backlash, they are not suitable choice for positioning. Therefore, it is suitable to use ball screws and roller cage. In this MLC prototype, the control part is designed and fabricated by using the PLCs. The advantages of PLC with respect to the microprocessors are described as following: The capability to easily develop the dynamical part such as in changing the geometrical design of the leaf The capability to detect leaf position in achieving safe and reliable position control using the mechanism such as video-optical system, without making important changes in wiring. The feedback received directly from the encoder is valuable, but in the view point of the positioning leaves is not reliable. Because if for any reason the transmission path of the DC motors of leaves it is disconnected (such as

screws couplings relaxes and finally separated from the coupling DC motors and motor screws) feedback encoder was received. Actually leaves are fixed, and this event is very undesirable. Because the need is to install sensors to place directly from the leaves position status Information is more accurate. If for any reason MLC leaves are fixed in place to the system, it is possible that the relevant residual DC motors work and will cause serious damage to the engine is entered. Hence, it is worthy, if the feedback from the motor encoder is not received; the system power supply automatically cut, and the user notify it. In a typical MLC configuration, each leaf is moved to

the opposing leaves or vice versa by using the power relay, simultaneously. It is a potential limitation to decrease the GSK-3 time for the MLC configuration. It is hoped that this limitation is removed in the future designs via to develop the control part. BIOGRAPHIES Abdolreza Hashemian Medical Physics Research Center, Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Tel: 098 5138002328 Fax: 098 5138002320 Postal address: Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. E-mail: [email protected] Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi Medical Physics Research Center, Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Tel: 098 5138002316 Fax: 098 5138002320 Postal address: Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

in which the algorithm to detect malignant melanoma from benign l

in which the algorithm to detect malignant melanoma from benign lesions by the usage of skin lesion macroscopic images is proposed. In this study, for lesion area segmentation, first the elimination of the low frequency spatial component of the image

Vorinostat solubility was used for background correction, and then a thresholding based method which was inspired by Otsu’s algorithm, was applied to segment the lesion area. By considering ABCD criteria, 55 features were defined and extracted from the determined lesion area. Then correlation-based feature selection method and adaboost classifier were used as a feature selection step. In this algorithm, one decision support part was added which lead to the usage of the personal information including skin type, age, gender and part of the body along with the output of image classifier. Finally, 86% accuracy, 94% sensitivity and 68% specificity have been achieved.[6] In 2010, Christensen et al. proposed a procedure in which morphological operators were used for thick and thin

hairs removal, pre and postprocessing. Otsu’s thresholding algorithm was applied on blue channel of red, green and blue (RGB) color space locally to determine the lesion area, and then, 9 features describing the overall shape, border and color distribution were extracted. A prediction model was constructed based on statistical analyses of the algorithm outputs. Finally by applying an optimal threshold on output index score, 77% accuracy was achieved.[7] In 2011, the procedure is presented by Cavalcanti et al. in which shadow was estimated by adjusting a two degree quadric polynomial on normal skin and its effect was attenuated by removing this plane from the image. To determine the lesion area, a new three-channel image was defined, and a thresholding method inspired by Otsu’s algorithm was applied on. Then by the usage of 52 extracted features, which were grouped in ABCD criteria features, and two k nearest neighborhood and decision tree

classifiers in two modes, the lesion type was predicted. Finally, accuracy of 96.71%, sensitivity of 96.26% and specificity of 97.78% has been obtained.[8] In 2013, Cavalcanti et al. introduced 12 features based on the values of eumelanin and pheomelanin of the lesion and added them to the feature Batimastat set which used in the previous study. In this way, the proposed procedure in that study resulted in 100% sensitivity, 97.78% specificity and 99.34% accuracy.[9] The database of the mentioned studies was limited due to the conditions and constraints, which noted previously. This disadvantage prevents the proposed procedures from being appropriate to be applied on publicly available equipments that are the ultimate goal of proposing these procedures.

EQUIPT has a dedicated work package on dissemination of findings

EQUIPT has a dedicated work package on dissemination of findings. The ROI tools will be available for Crenolanib public download through the project’s website (

together with the accompanying User Guide, Technical Reports and worked-out examples. This will form the part of e-learning resources. The major analytical findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals, presentations in conferences, policy briefs and media briefs. Status of study EQUIPT is a 3-year project that started on 1 October 2013 and will end on 30 September 2016. Discussion EQUIPT is a rare multidisciplinary study designed to test the transferability of economic evidence

around tobacco control and will provide evidence-based, practical and customisable ROI tools to actual decision-makers. The findings are expected to promote and disseminate the ROI methods and results to foster evidence-driven decision-making on comprehensive tobacco control across Europe. The primary aim of transferring comparative effectiveness data to other countries is to make timely and sensible policy recommendations, even in the absence of relevant evidence for the country of interest. This is especially beneficial for countries with fewer analytical resources, where there is a lack of relevant input data to adapt the ROI model and in which there is a higher potential

to save life years from tobacco control and quit support strategies.12 There is a limited understanding of the causes of variability in cost-effectiveness data, and this presents a key barrier to the transferability of the economic evaluation results.9 27 Some authors suggest that “there is a lack of empirical studies which prevents stronger conclusions regarding which transferability factors are most important to consider and under which circumstances.”11 Nevertheless, the transfer of evidence to other countries may be possible if: (1) we identify those factors which cause the most variability in the relative success of tobacco control and quit-support strategies across countries and (2) the countries of interest are appropriately reflected in the existing data.10 Adapting an economic model may GSK-3 require an evaluation of those model components that are similar across countries (core components) and those that vary between countries (country-specific components). For example, the EUnetHTA programme “attempt[s] to define and standardise elements of an HTA” by dividing relevant information on the technology under assessment “into standardised pieces, each of which describing one or more aspects of the technology that is likely to be useful when considering the adoption or rejection of the technology.

We will extract data on study characteristics (eg, first author,

We will extract data on study characteristics (eg, first author, citation), population (inclusion criteria), setting, QI intervention and outcomes. QI interventions are complex (ie, multifaceted with multiple targets), so we will explore their elements to determine which aspects contribute to their impact. To do this, we will extract information about each QI intervention overall, explore its elements and determine which aspects contribute to the intervention’s impact. To do this, we will extract information about the overall QI intervention, as

well as details about its components or elements (eg, a home-based intervention may include the components such as education, telemonitoring and follow-up with a physician). Data synthesis The analysis will involve collating and summarising all of the findings for each outcome. For RCTs and systematic reviews that do not conduct any statistical testing, results will be presented in a narrative synthesis. Conversely, for studies that include statistical analysis, we will present the statistical estimates (eg,

relative risks or HRs, with 95% CIs) in a tabular format, in addition to summarising them. Interventions determined to be effective by high-quality systematic reviews and/or RCTs will be highlighted. We will consider analysing systematic reviews that pool results, and present a summary of findings only for those that do not. We will also prepare descriptive tables to give an overview of the included study characteristics (ie, with the following data presented for all included

studies: author, year, target population, study design, intervention vs comparator, outcome(s) studied, follow-up period, etc). Given that we are conducting a scoping review and not a systematic review, we will not be carrying out a meta-analysis or assessing study quality, as this is not generally performed in scoping reviews.16 However, we will consider the synthesis of our data according to several conceptual frameworks such as the Donabedian’s structure-process-outcome framework17 as well as Wagner’s Chronic Care Model (CCM).18 19 The aim of CCM is to modify chronic disease care so it becomes patient-centred and high quality. The model provides a structure for organisational/practice change according to six elements for improvement: healthcare organisation, community resources, self-management support, delivery system design, decision support and clinical information Cilengitide system.18 We will also perform additional and more targeted syntheses on interventions (and their components) identified by our stakeholder team as having potential to inform practice (eg, interventions and their components that are identified as effective and feasible to implement). More specifically, we will use the CCM to map QI interventions and their components according to the six CCM elements to determine which has the most potential for improving the transition of care for patients with HF.

When interviewed, the researcher spoke of her personal expectatio

When interviewed, the researcher spoke of her personal expectations that PPI would help kinase assay to maximise recruitment, ensure the right outcomes were measured, and help in interpreting the findings. There was no PPI contributor interview but the researcher also

spoke of having to tailor ‘different ways of involving people’ in PPI depending on the ‘population of interest’: It might be children, people from disadvantaged groups or older people [...] so you probably have to find other tailored ways of including people to make it effective. So it’s not a one size fits all. (CI 7) The majority of those researchers interviewed who described such ‘as and when’ contributions (10/12) spoke of expectations for PPI, and tended to view responsive modes as constructive. Only in one case (trial 101) did the researcher allude to the PPI within their trial as a ‘tick box’ exercise. Three trials undertook additional responsive PPI activity that had not been specified in their documented plans. Trials 21 and 102 expanded on their plans by involving PPI contributors

in a broader range of activities than initially indicated, namely advising on recruitment and interpretation and dissemination of study findings. As with trial 21 (described in the Managerial Mode section above), we could not determine from the CI interview why plans for Trial 102 had been expanded, and there was no PPI contributor interview for trial 102 to help illuminate this issue. The PPI contributor for the third trial (trial 91) mentioned that she sought the views of ‘women’s groups’. This was additional to the documented plans for her to be involved in ‘protocol design of the study’. As with Trial 21, this PPI contributor had previous PPI experience

and appeared to be a particularly active member of the research team, and with considerable knowledge of the relevant health condition. In summary, most applicants implemented their documented plans for PPI regardless of the mode of planned involvement. In five cases we were unable to discern whether or not PPI plans were fully implemented, although some PPI was achieved in these trials. Regardless of whether PPI was implemented as planned GSK-3 or evolved, most trial teams faced challenges and learnt lessons about implementing PPI as they went along. We now turn to their accounts of this learning and then use these to derive practical advice for planning and implementing PPI. Researchers on the challenges of PPI and lessons learnt Most CIs spoke of the challenges they encountered in implementing PPI (table 2) and things they would do differently as a result. The involvement of trial investigators’ own patients as contributors was perceived to lead to a ‘conflict’ (CI 20) between an investigator’s research and clinical roles.

Terms of reference for each of these committees will guide freque

Terms of reference for each of these committees will guide frequency of reviews despite and the conditions under which either committee would

advise the research team that enrolment to the trial should cease. Discussion This will be the first study to provide rigorous evidence regarding the practice of antenatal expression of colostrum in late pregnancy for women with diabetes in pregnancy. It will explore the safety and efficacy for mother, fetus and infant. There remains widespread national and international interest in the outcomes of this trial, and the controversy can be seen in a recent review which concluded antenatal expressing should be encouraged: “Although Forster et al43 have argued the

teaching of [antenatal expressing] should cease until the practice is proven to be safe and effective…an ethical dilemma now exists…as to whether the benefits of early colostrum feedings in at-risk babies outweighs the unproven side effect of premature labour.52 In the absence of evidence, the clear benefits of early feedings of colostrum should outweigh the unsupported risks of ceasing [antenatal expressing] education.”53 Trial status Approval has been granted from the following Human Research Ethics Committees (reference number in brackets): RWH (11/07); MHW (11/06); La Trobe University (11-004); Monash Medical Centre (12181-B); Barwon Health (13/06); Peninsula Health (14/PH/21). Recruitment started at RWH in June 2011, followed by MHW in July 2011. In May 2012, due to (A) the slow recruitment rate resulting

from low numbers of eligible women, and (B) external expert advice to include women with diabetes in pregnancy who did not require insulin, thereby increasing the trial’s external validity, it was agreed to amend our inclusion criteria to include all women with diabetes in pregnancy (not just those requiring insulin) and to identify and recruit further trial sites. Monash Medical Centre started in October 2012 and Barwon Health (Geelong Hospital) in April 2013. The last site, Frankston Hospital, had ethics approval from Peninsula Health in July 2014 Anacetrapib and recruitment will start soon. In the original protocol women who had a history of spontaneous preterm birth or who had threatened preterm birth in the current pregnancy were excluded, however following the Safety Committee review of the first 100 births, which found no evidence of contractions following expressing, and because no woman is randomised prior to 36 weeks gestation, this exclusion criterion was removed.

Some participants felt that PrEP used in isolation was ‘too much’

Some participants felt that PrEP used in isolation was ‘too much’ of a risk (if only approximately 70% effective). Respondent 1: That’s not enough, that’s not enough, exactly. Respondent 2: Its seventy-two

per cent effective but then there’s still that twenty-eight per cent. (HIV-negative MSM, FG) Participants also expressed a wider scepticism of PrEP, which emerged in two ways. GSI-IX Some thought that the advice to use condoms with PrEP indicated a continued scientific uncertainty: “I don’t know if this [will] work because since they said if you use it you can still use condom, that means they are not sure as well” (HIV-negative African woman). Second, some expressed scepticism in relation to the variability in reported efficacy rates in relation to adherence. As a result, there was a reluctance to trust these, unless the information came from a recognised, trusted and reliable source. R1: There’s so much out there right, on the internet an’ everything else right, if it came up on the news right? The logistic news on BBC one that this pill will prevent so…—like a hundred per cent—that’s when I would believe it would work. I [would not] trust any other pill… Question: So it has to be a hundred per cent? R2: ‘cause there’s

a lot a…no like—anyone can put something on the internet, …You’ve got to use like certain websites, you’ve got to look like .org, .gov, those type o’ websites. You’ve just done one that’s like it’s not a…it’s not like a legitimate website it could just be anyone postin’ stuff up there. Q: Well I suppose in the States it’s from the Food and Drug Administration so it’s

got that stamp on it. R1: Yes, but you [don't know] if they’re been a hundred per cent accurate on their job or just been lazy an’ the fact that we’re brave enough to take it to human trials right? (HIV-negative MSM, FG) In spite of being told that the FDA had approved the drug, these FG participants did not recognise the organisation or trust it as a reliable source, and were therefore sceptical about its statements and/or endorsement. Other participants were less concerned about PrEP not being 100% efficacious because they imagined AV-951 that it would be used in addition to condoms. However, participants expressed confusion or uncertainty in knowing how to interpret efficacy rates and their impact on risk reduction in this particular context. For example, in discussing the effectiveness of condoms in relation to other prevention strategies, one participant calculated the protection offered by PrEP, condoms and TasP with a hypothetical HIV-positive sexual partner. Assuming that PrEP was 90% effective at reducing HIV transmission, he explained: R: but there’s obviously still a 10% risk but, as you said, there’s the same risk with condoms.

It provides insights suggesting that a MAST program, of which an

It provides insights suggesting that a MAST program, of which an aerobic selleckchem Sunitinib component includes Nordic-walking, may be used as a means of improvement of HRQL in terms of a positive trend in serum lipid levels, VO2max, and body strength. The results of this study may be further used for planning an intervention program

for obese elderly women. Practical Implications A 10-week MAST program, encompassing NW as an aerobic component, increases upper and lower-body strength in obese postmenopausal women. A 10-week MAST program increases physical performance in terms of VO2max in obese postmenopausal women. A 10-week MAST program results in positive changes in serum lipid levels in obese postmenopausal women. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the grant RSA2 053 52 awarded to IZZ
Elite athletic performance is a complex phenotype determined by several environmental factors such as diet, physical training, and sociocultural factors. Although

all these factors are certainly acknowledged as key components contributing to sport performance, there remains a belief that there is a genetic component to the success of elite athletes. A recent study has identified in excess of 240 gene variants as potential genetic markers associated with fitness-related phenotypes, although few of these variants have been associated with elite-level athletic performance (Bray et al., 2009). The most frequently investigated genetic markers in the context of athletic predisposition are the ACE and the ACTN3 polymorphisms (Pokrywka et al., 2013). Variants in both these genes have been reported to be associated with elite athletic performance and with normal, quantitative physical performance traits in the general population (Bustamante-Ara et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2013; Drozdovska et al., 2013). The human angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE) is located on chromosome 17 in position 17q23.3 (Rieder et al.,

1999). The product of this gene (an enzyme converting angiotensin I into II) is acknowledged to be a key-element in the renin angiotensin system (RAS), a system responsible for the regulation of blood pressure – one of the main factors determining the efficiency of the whole body. The most widely studied ACE polymorphism Cilengitide is the restriction fragment length polymorphism consisting of the presence (insertion, I) or absence (deletion, D) of a 287 base pair Alu repeat sequence in intron 16. In this case, three ACE genotypes include DD and II homozygotes and ID heterozygotes. The I allele is associated with lower ACE activity in both serum and tissue compared with the D allele (Rigat et al., 1990). In reports regarding association between the ACE genotype and training, the DD genotype seems to impart an advantage in the development of short duration aerobic performance (Cam et al., 2007).

5 Wide applications Generally, xeroradiography has interesting ap

5 Wide applications Generally, xeroradiography has interesting applications in the management of neoplasm of laryngopharyngeal area, selleck chemicals Pazopanib mammary and joint region, as well as an aid in cephalometric analysis. POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF XERORADIOGRAPHY One of the key characteristics of xeroradiography is the use of electrostatic charges in xeroradiographic process. Such charges stand the risk of being lost in confined humid oral environment in intraoral xeroradiograph.5,22,26 This is very difficult to overcome. Technical difficulties Both the amount of radiation exposure and the thickness of xeroradiographic plate are linearly proportional. An increased thickness of the plate will increase the speed, because of the greater likelihood that the x-rays passing through the photoconducting layer will interact.

27 Fragile selenium coat The amorphous selenium photoconductor is a highly electrically stable layer. However, the layer is quite easily scratched. Notwithstanding, it has been observed that the surface shows good resistance to scratching, chipping and abrasion. As a result, placement and retention in confined area like the mouth would possibly be difficult.5,19,22 Transient Image Retention Rawls and Owen19 reported that xeroradiographic process involves residual charge patterns and therefore, the imaging process should be completed as soon as possible. However, as long as the charge pattern is retained, the technique allows multiple copies to be obtained from the pattern.22,23 Slower speed Comparatively, xeroradiography has a lower speed than halide radiographs.

This can be significant when dealing with intraoral films.21,26 Technical limitations Certain technical limitations, such as low density of the selenium plate which requires increased doses of the x-rays administered make the technique not to be considered as a total substitute for halide radiograph.28 POTENTIAL ENDODONTIC APPLICATIONS Xeroradiography has several effects on the soft tissues that make the technique potentially useful in endodontics.29 First, soft tissues on xeroradiographic films have well defined outlines that may permit confident evaluation of the soft tissue height and contour. Second, xeroradiographs provide greater overall soft tissue detail making possible evaluation of its density, texture, and contents. Third, the technique reveals soft tissues calcifications which are not easily discerned in conventional radiographs.

6 Batimastat This property may be employed in endodontics to visualized early pulpal calcifications. Other workers are of the view that some unique properties such as greater latitude of exposure, high resolving power, and the property of edge enhancement may be useful in endodontics. These properties may be exploited when detailed visualization of lamina dura, bony trabeculae, fine metal instruments like files, broaches etc, root apices, periodontal ligament spaces are required.