These Panobinostat nmr connect through the rete testis to the head of the epididymis and subsequently, to the vas deferens. The volume of the testes, palpated clinically, then correlates with the functional activity of spermatogenesis, increasing with puberty. Conversely, in those clinical conditions, in which spermatogenesis is severely impaired, such as Klinefelter’s syndrome, testes volume tends to be smaller than normal.1 The process of sperm formation can be divided into three separate components: Spermatogenesis – the formation of sperm cells that have undergone first and second meiotic divisions, but have remained round in shape.2

The entire process of sperm production occurs over approximately 10 weeks.5 Spermatozoa leaving the testes and entering the epididymis do not possess the ability to fertilize eggs, but acquire this ability during their transit through the epididymis. selleck kinase inhibitor This process is not yet completely understood, but is associated with acquisition of propulsive motility and alterations in the sperm plasma membrane and glycocalyx.6,7 Only approximately 1 cc of the ejaculate volume (normal range 2–6 cc) is made up of sperm-containing fluid of the vas deferens. The remaining ejaculate volume reflects contributions of the male accessory glands

(the prostate and seminal vesicles). The latter secretions contain prostaglandins and TGF-beta, which play potential roles in immunosuppression and in sperm transport within the female reproductive tract. If one examines the histology of the testes on cross-section, the seminiferous tubule will be seen to be surrounded by a layer of myoid cells on which the spermatogonia rest, the progenitor cells from which spermatocytes undergoing meiosis are produced.2 Sertoli cells ascend from the base of the seminiferous tubule toward its lumen, like ‘trees of a forest.’ They play roles in the endocrine regulation of the pituitary gonadotropins, as well as in the segregation of spermatids &

spermatocytes from the systemic immune system, and in the process of spermiogenesis.4 The interstitial compartment located between the seminiferous tubules contains Leydig cells as well Thalidomide as lymphocytes and blood vessels. Leydig cells synthesize testosterone and estradiol under the stimulus of luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted by the pituitary, which is regulated through negative feedback at the level of the pituitary and hypothalamus.1 Inhibin produced primarily by the Sertoli cells feeds back to the anterior pituitary in a negative manner, regulating the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).1,8 Primary spermatocytes originating from the spermatogonia ascend toward the tubular lumen, supported by Sertoli cells.

Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed to i

Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed to identify selleck chemicals variables that were independently correlated with the treatment outcome. Variables with a P value of <0.1 in univariate analysis were further included in a multivariate logistic regression

analysis. The odds ratios and 95% CI were also calculated. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Unless otherwise stated, a P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The sequence data reported in this paper have been deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank nucleotide sequence databases under the accession numbers AB601987 through AB602043. Among the 57 patients enrolled in this study, 8 (14%), 36 (63%), 42 (74%) and 32 (56%) patients were negative for HCV-RNA at week 4 (RVR), week 12 (EVR), week 48 (ETR) and week 72 (SVR), respectively (Table 1). SVR was achieved by all (100%) of RVR, 30 (83%) of 36 EVR, and 32 (76%) of 42 ETR patients. Non-SVR patients represented 44% (25/57) of total cases. Twenty-six percent (15/57) of the patients had continuous viremia during the whole observation period (72 weeks), referred to as a null response; whereas 18% (10/57) had transient disappearance of serum HCV RNA at a certain time point followed by a rebound in viremia

either before, or after the end of, the treatment course, referred to as a relapse. The degree of sequence variation within the IRRDR has been proposed as a useful predictor of HCV treatment outcome (11, 15, 20, 21). We performed ROC curve analysis to estimate the optimal cutoff number of IRRDR mutations that learn more differentiated between a SVR and non-SVR in the present patient cohort. Based on the results obtained, we estimated

four mutations as the optimal number of IRRDR mutations since this provided the highest sensitivity (88%) and good specificity (52%) with an AUC of 0.66 (Fig. 1a). In this study, check therefore, we used the criteria of four or more mutations in the IRRDR (IRRDR ≥ 4) and IRRDR ≤ 3. In this connection, it should be stated that the criteria of IRRDR ≥ 6 and IRRDR ≤ 5 which were used on different patient cohorts in Hyogo Prefecture (11, 15) were not selected by the ROC curve analysis in this study because of their low sensitivity (34%), although they had higher specificity (80%) than that of IRRDR ≥ 4 (52%). This difference was probably due to the low prevalence of HCV isolates with IRRDR ≥ 6 (28%) in the present patient cohort. We found that 70%, 30%, 17.5% and 12.5% of patients infected with HCV isolates with IRRDR ≥ 4 were SVR, non-SVR, null response and relapse cases, respectively (Table 2 and Fig. 2). By contrast, 24%, 76%, 47% and 29% of patients infected with HCV isolates with IRRDR ≤ 3 were SVR, non-SVR, null response and relapse cases, respectively. Thus, the proportions of SVR, non-SVR, null response and relapse cases were significantly different among HCV isolates with IRRDR ≥ 4 and IRRDR ≤ 3.

[78] Results from genetic studies in mice and rats have demonstra

[78] Results from genetic studies in mice and rats have demonstrated that knockout or mRNA interference of DDAH-1 is associated with an increase in ADMA and leads to a cardiovascular phenotype, that is, hypertension, consistent with NOs inhibition.[79] In humans it was found that the plasma levels of ADMA are associated with mean blood pressure levels in healthy subjects.[72] Increased ADMA concentration was also observed in humans with essential hypertension compared to normotensive healthy subjects.[80] Infusion of endogenous ADMA in healthy volunteers with a concomitant increase of serum ADMA

concentration from 0.95 μmol/L to 23 μmol/L was necessary to affect systemic BP.[81] Also, it caused significant Ivacaftor supplier decrease in renal sodium excretion, significant decrease in effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and significant increase in renovascular resistance (RVR).[81] Increased ADMA has been observed in patients with white-coat hypertension.[82] The possible mechanisms by which endogenous ADMA is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension are: (i) The decrease of renal NO, by ADMA and the increase of O2− can lead to a pathological reabsorption of NaCl and H2O (even with subpressor dose of ADMA[83]), resulting in hypertension.[78, 84] (ii) ADMA can cause vasoconstriction

and increase of blood pressure; it impairs the endothelial-dependent relaxation GDC-0941 cell line C59 molecular weight and increases the adhesion ability of endothelial cell.[66, 85] (iii) Moreover, the intraglomerularhaemodynamic state is disturbed, the tubular glomerular retrograde

regulation and the renal adaptation to sympathetic activity are both impaired (sympathetic overactivity).[86] (iv) Shear stress increases PRMT expression and activity and stimulates production of ADMA in cultured endothelial cells.[39] Shear stress may contribute to the increase in ADMA observed in hypervolaemic states such as high-salt diet.[87] It seems that higher ADMA levels can ‘produce’ hypertension and on the other hand maybe present secondarily in hypertension as a response to shear stress. Proteinuria, even microalbuminuria, is a traditional progression factor of kidney damage with or without diabetes or hypertension.[9] There is an increasing body of evidence that endothelial dysfunction is linked to proteinuria.[88, 89] Impaired NO production is the characteristic feature of endothelial dysfunction and ADMA levels were related with proteinuria.[11, 90] Indeed there is a reference for an ADMA dose-related damage of the glomerular barrier, as well as increased permeability to albumin resulting in proteinuria in an in vitro experimental model (isolated glomeruli). The ADMA concentrations applied were similar to the circulating ADMA concentration in CKD patients.

“These guidelines were developed before the uptake of the

“These guidelines were developed before the uptake of the GRADE framework by the KHA-CARI Guidelines organization. Accordingly, the writers have followed an adapted version of the NHMRC evidence rating

system published in 1999.[1] A description of the ratings applied to the evidence is shown in Table 1. Guideline Recommendations are based on Level I or II evidence and Suggestions for Clinical Care are based on Level III or IV evidence. This guideline addresses issues relevant to the development, prevention and management of peritonitis and catheter-related infections in peritoneal dialysis patients. Recurrent or severe exit site infections (ESI) and peritonitis are a problem with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and represent the major causes of Tenckhoff catheter removal and PD technique failure. Peritonitis is the most common complication of PD. Up KPT-330 ic50 to one-third of all PD peritonitis episodes lead to hospitalization[2] and 5–10% of cases IWR-1 nmr end in patient death.[3] ESI are associated with a greatly increased risk of subsequent peritonitis and when ESI and peritonitis occur together, catheter removal occurs in approximately 50% of cases.[4] Disconnect systems of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) result in lower rates of peritonitis than ‘spike’

systems and this older system should no longer be used (Evidence level I). Twin bag systems have lower rates of peritonitis than Y-disconnect systems and are recommended as the preferred CAPD technique (Evidence level I). There is insufficient high level evidence (one adequate small RCT only) to support a difference in peritonitis rates when biocompatible fluids are used compared with standard dextrose solutions in PD patients (Evidence level II). The choice of APD or CAPD

regimens in PD patients should not be influenced by a possible effect on peritonitis rates. The choice of conventional or biocompatible PD solutions should not be unduly influenced by potential benefits in peritonitis rates until stronger evidence becomes available. In peritoneal dialysis patients with a provisional diagnosis Selleckchem Sirolimus of peritonitis, treatment should commence with a combination of intraperitoneal antibiotics that will adequately cover Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Once bacterial diagnosis is made, then a change to appropriate antibiotic should be made. Treatment should be of adequate duration to reduce recurrence (Evidence level II). Where local or international guidelines are available they should be used to guide therapy. Peritoneal dialysate effluent should be collected and processed in appropriate manner to ensure culture-negative episodes account for <20% of all PD-associated peritonitis. While there is no good evidence to support specific antibiotic choice, empiric intraperitoneal therapy should consider local microbiological resistance profiles and cover Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Methods: Tissue sections from the central nervous system of infec

Methods: Tissue sections from the central nervous system of infected cases were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.

Results: All 13 cases of EV71 encephalomyelitis collected from Asia and France invariably showed stereotyped distribution of inflammation in the spinal cord, brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebellar dentate nucleus and, to a lesser extent, cerebral cortex and meninges. Anterior pons, corpus striatum, thalamus, temporal lobe, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex were always uninflamed. In contrast, the eight JE cases studied showed inflammation involving most neuronal areas of the central nervous system, including the areas that were uninflamed in EV71 encephalomyelitis. Lesions in both infections were nonspecific, consisting of perivascular learn more and parenchymal infiltration by inflammatory cells, oedematous/necrolytic areas, microglial nodules and neuronophagia. Viral inclusions were absent. Conclusions: Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays were useful to identify the causative virus, localizing viral antigens and RNA, respectively, almost exclusively to neurones.

The stereotyped distribution of inflammatory lesions in EV71 encephalomyelitis appears to be very useful to help distinguish it from JE. “
“Multiple find more sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are inflammatory autoimmune diseases that affect the central nervous system. Several genome-wide and candidate gene studies have identified genetic polymorphisms associated with the risk of MS or NMO. In particular, two recently published studies of meta-analysis in European-origin populations have suggested associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD6, TNFRSF1A and IRF8

with MS. The aim of our study was to assess the associations between SNPs in these three genes and the risk of inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) including MS and NMO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such a study has been performed in an Asian population. A total of 21 SNPs of CD6, TNFRSF1A and IRF8 Rucaparib price were genotyped in 178 IDD cases (79 MS and 99 NMO patients) and 237 normal controls in a Korean population. Logistic analyses revealed that one SNP in CD6 (rs12288280, P = 0.04) and three SNPs in TNFRSF1A (rs767455, rs4149577 and rs1800693, P = 0.01–0.03) were associated with NMO. However, there was no association of IRF8 polymorphisms with IDD, including MS and NMO. Using further information from the SNP Function Prediction website, two exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs), including the polymorphic site of rs767455, were predicted to be binding sites for splicing factors (SRp55, SF2/ASF2 and SF2/ASF1). Although additional studies are needed, our findings could provide information regarding the genetic aetiology of IDD in the Korean population.

Similarly, Th2 cells fit the description of a prime suspect durin

Similarly, Th2 cells fit the description of a prime suspect during the development of atopy and subsequent allergic reactions, but their sole involvement and subsequent targeting for allergy therapy (which has only achieved modest success9) is unlikely.

Hence, neither the Th2 cell, at a particular snapshot in time of analysis, or its associated cytokine profile after unphysiological stimulation in vitro, should be thought of alone, but rather in the context in which it is acting. These rather obvious reminders are often not observable during in vitro Th2 experiments or are not reported 3-MA molecular weight during complex in vivo studies. Yet to accurately report a Th2-dependent gene, to hypothesize and test the function of Th2 features and to ascribe some relevant meaning requires an appropriate environment. Th2 cells and their responses are often vaguely described as type 2 microenvironments, expanding the single Th2 cell to a multi-cytokine and multi-cell mélange including alternatively activated macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and recently described innate-like cells. We will attempt to strip down these broad interpretations and draw attention

to what we know and do not know about the type-2 namesake, αβ+ CD4+ Th2 cells. The activation of the il4 gene in CD4+ Th cells is the conventional marker for Th2 differentiation similar to the activation of the ifng gene for Th1 differentiation (Fig. 1). These markers have RG7204 price been used to identify the specific requirements

for Th2, or Th1, differentiation in vitro, in vivo, in situ and ex vivo. Most of our current understanding of Th2 differentiation is therefore based upon the activation of this single gene. What about cells that do not activate il4, either naturally or through genetic manipulation of the il4 gene or il4 receptor, but display other Th2 markers? Are they still Th2 cells? Indeed, IL-4-independent Th2 differentiation has been reported10–12 and will be discussed in more detail below. Reductionist Histone demethylase in vitro experiments have been invaluable, forging ahead and undressing Th2 (and other CD4+ Th) cell differentiation down to three essential signals, (i) TCR engagement, (ii) appropriate co-stimulation, and (iii) cytokine receptor ligation (Fig. 2). Needless to say, discrepancies exist between in vitro and in vivo requirements for each Th subset. T-cell receptor engagement, activating nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) and GATA-binding protein-3 (GATA 3)13 may be the first signal to nudge CD4+ Th cells down a Th2 path. In seminal studies by Constant et al.12 and Hosken et al.

Overall, there is stronger molecular evidence that IL-2 is import

Overall, there is stronger molecular evidence that IL-2 is important for Th2 generation 23 than for Th1 cells. This leaves open the possibility that a direct Th2-skewing effect of IL-2 may also contribute to the protective function of IL-2-antibody complexes in myasthenia gravis. Although recent interest in IL-2 for the treatment of autoimmunity stems from IL-2′s role in the maintenance of Treg, the activities of this growth factor on effector cells must be taken into account when evaluating IL-2′s therapeutic potential. Indeed, in a study using IL-2 to prevent diabetes in find more the NOD mouse 16, it was found that high doses

of IL-2 complexes expanded effector cells and led to accelerated onset of diabetes. To the contrary, low doses of IL-2 prevented the onset of diabetes by restoring functional Treg in the pancreas. The detrimental outcome selleck kinase inhibitor of IL-2 treatment is likely due to the induction of strong effector and memory responses in the autoimmune-prone mice. Recent studies have demonstrated a prominent role for IL-2 in

the generation of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells 24, 25. This function is obviously unwanted when treating autoimmune disease but the current body of evidence suggests that careful determination of IL-2 complex doses and timing to specifically target Treg provides a rationale to circumvent these problems 16. It may be that lower doses of IL-2 complexes favor Treg function, whereas higher doses will boost effector/memory cell formation. The high levels of CD25 on Treg compared with naïve and effector cells may explain this differential sensitivity, allowing Treg to outcompete effector cells for capturing

environmental IL-2. It is likely that assays for IL-2 action, such as phospho-flow analyses 14, will help us better define IL-2′s targets under different conditions of exposure. In addition, combination therapy, such as IL-2 to promote Treg numbers and function and mTOR inhibitors to block the generation of effector T cells, may prove to be beneficial in immunological disorders. IL-2 is one of the first cytokines learn more discovered and it was thought that IL-2′s function is well understood. Studies in the past 10 years have led to new insights into the biology of IL-2 and an astonishing re-evaluation of the dogma. It is especially remarkable that almost two decades ago this cytokine was being tested for its ability to boost immune responses and now it is being considered as a therapy to inhibit immune responses. The development of better assays to define cytokine actions in vivo and rational strategies to optimize the actions of cytokines may help to realize the potential of IL-2 as an immunotherapeutic agent. Supported by NIH grants RO1 AI073656 and P01 AI35297 (to A. K. A.), and JDRF grant 32-2008-354 (to H. D.). Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. See accompanying article:

10 Lesions in CL patients contain high levels

10 Lesions in CL patients contain high levels BYL719 purchase of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), CX chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9)/MIG and CXCL10/IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), whereas patients with DCL express CCL3/MIP-1α.11 Thus, the levels of cytokines/chemokines are modulated differently depending on the clinical forms of the disease and the causative species of Leishmania. There are limited studies reporting the cellular immune responses in CL caused by L. tropica.12,13 Comprehensive studies in human CL caused by infection with L. tropica are lacking

and an open field awaits the intrepid investigator. In the present study, we examined the profile of circulating and localized immune response in patients with CL. The study was further extended in subjects from the region where CL is endemic to investigate the outcome of the immune response in patients cured of CL upon treatment with different drugs. This study led to the identification of key cytokines that determine the clinical outcome of the disease and helped in understanding the immunological pathways that may be involved in the pathogenesis of CL caused by L. tropica. Patients

with suspected CL were recruited between April 2006 and April 2008 in the Department of Skin, STD & Leprosy, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner (Rajasthan), India, and the study was approved by the Ethical committee.

Of the 31 patients with CL who were included in this study, 23 (74·19%) were male and 8 (25·81%) were FDA approved Drug Library female. The majority of patients were in the age range of 5–50 years, with the mean age being 33·48 ± 3·47 [standard error (SE)] years. The history of CL cases was 1–7 months of onset of lesions at the time of diagnosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory demonstration of the parasite MG 132 by direct microscopy of a tissue smear. The causative organism was established as L. tropica, as described previously.3 Patients were given treatment with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) intralesionally, 0·5 ml/cm2 of lesion, twice a week for 5–7 injections, depending on the lesion and its response to treatment. Alternatively, in patients with multiple lesions, and in paediatric patients, rifampicin (RFM) (20 mg/kg body weight) was given for 3 months orally. Skin biopsies were taken before starting the treatment and in 14 patients 2–4 weeks after the last dose of treatment, in clinically cured patients. Six normal skin biopsy samples were collected as controls from healthy volunteers. Skin biopsies of 5–10 mm were taken from the border of the ulcers in RNAlater® (Ambion, Austin, TX), total RNA was isolated using Trizol reagent and complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared using a SuperScript RNase H-Reverse Transcriptase kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA).


this report, we present a strategy for highly resolv


this report, we present a strategy for highly resolved mapping of serological specificities that allows assessing the range and specificities of immune responses to E. granulosus and, at the same time, to identify specific antigens. This strategy joins immunoblot immune screening with proteome technologies involving 2-DE-PAGE and mass spectrometry for the identification of the antigens. A comparison of the specificity patterns of sera from patients with different stage of the disease reveals great differences in the antigens targeted during development of CE infection. The identified HSP20 belongs to the family of highly Idasanutlin in vitro conserved small HSPs that function as molecular chaperones and, preventing stress, induce aggregation of partially denatured proteins and promote their return

to native conformations when favourable conditions pertain (14). During transmission, E. granulosus undergoes a drastic change of environmental factors from the ambient temperature to higher temperature in the mammalian host. Given these circumstances, HSPs, in Echinococcus, play essential roles in the host–pathogen interaction. In theory, the unmistakable resemblance of parasitic HSPs to host homologous HSPs might render them identifiable to the immune system as self, thus obviating a response and providing a good example of ‘antigen mimicry’. Selleck LDK378 Our results indicate that in CE, this tolerance does not occur and HSP20 derived from E. granulosus act as classical foreign antigen, and elicit immune response as several parasite HSPs. We have previously characterised Eg2HSP70 as an antigenic molecule inducing both B- and T-cell responses (15). Chemale et al. (2003) identified by proteomic analysis members of the heat shock protein family, HSP70 and HSP 20, in protoscoleces of E. granulosus (10). More

recently, Montero et al. (11) identified a HSP20-related protein among the intracellular proteins found in bovine hydatid fluid of E. granulosus. Serum derived from mice buy Staurosporine infected with E. multilocularis also recognised putative HSP20-related protein, suggesting the potential of this protein as immunodiagnostic or vaccine candidate for alveolar echinococcosis infection (16). Our results here extend the current knowledge about the possible role of HSPs in the induction or modulation of the host immune response, and assign to HSP20 a crucial function in the host–parasite relationship. In particular, in this study, we observe that HSP20 induces a strong host immune response in the early stages of E. granulosus development (active disease) and a weak or undetectable host immune response in advanced stages of the disease (inactive disease).

1 [8] This reporter line was used to screen newly generated mous

1 [8]. This reporter line was used to screen newly generated mouse-human hybrid antigen-presenting cell lines

for their capacity to activate the reporter line in presence of the PAg HMBPP and the PAg-inducing agent zoledronate or the alkylamine sec-butylamine. Mouse-human hybrids are known to successively lose human chromosomes over time in culture. To identify those human chromosome(s) mandatory for PAg presentation, hybrid cells were cloned and tested for induction of reporter cell stimulation in the presence of 1 nM HMBPP. PCR karyotyping showed that loss of human chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18, 20, 21, and X had no effect on PAg-mediated activation of the reporter cells, while cells without Chr6 failed to induce activation of the reporter cells in the presence of HMBPP or zoledronate. For

reasons so far unknown, 2 of 6 of the Chr6-bearing hybridoma cell lines stimulate the reporter cells in the presence of HMBPP and zoledronate but not in the presence of 2 mM sec-butylamine. This loss of the capacity to stimulate in presence of alkylamine did not correlate with loss of distinct human chromosomes. To test whether Chr6 alone would be sufficient for HMBPP-induced reporter cell activation, we tested Chinese hamster ovary cells monosomal for human Chr6 (CHO Chr6 cells) as presenters. We compared their responses to HMBPP, zoledronate, sec-butylamine or mAb 20.1 using CHO cells, CHO cells transduced with BTN3A1 and CHO Chr6 cells with or without transduced BTN3A1 as antigen-presenting cells. Figure 1 shows that the reporter cells responded selleck screening library to zoledronate and HMBPP in the presence of CHO Chr6 cells. This is in full agreement with the reported requirement of Chr6 for PAg presentation [12]. As previously reported for human cells as PAg-presenters [8, 9, 12], BTN3A1 transduction increased PAg-induced stimulation but only for CHO Chr6 cells (CHO Chr6 BTN3A1). Importantly, CHO cells expressing only the PAg-presenting BTN3A1 molecule (CHO BTN3A1) but lacking Chr6 activated neither in the presence of HMBPP nor zoledronate (Fig. 1A and B). Figure 1C shows that, in the presence of mAb 20.1, CHO Chr6 BTN3A1

cells Selleckchem Ribociclib and even more strikingly CHO BTN3A1 cells massively stimulated the reporter cells. In contrast to our study, Vavassorri et al. [12] showed no data on whether BTN3A1 would be sufficient to render murine cells PAg presenters and Harly et al. [8] only mentioned as an “unpublished observation” that BTN3A1-transduced mouse cells fail to present PAg. However, such a negative result is difficult to interpret unless a suitable positive control is provided. Indeed, it is conceivable that Vγ9Vδ2 T cell-mediated activation requires additional features, e.g. the expression of certain co-stimulatory molecules. Therefore it is important that BTN3A1-transduced CHO and BTN3A1-transduced CHO Chr6 cells induce a strong response to mAb 20.