“The authors report a male infant born at 35 weeks

“The authors report a male infant born at 35 weeks

gestational age with an atypical presentation of homozygous -thalassemia. The live-born infant displayed abnormalities of the upper limbs and genitalia, which are vascular-type disruptive defects associated with this disease. Cardiomegaly and placentomegaly were the only evidence of fetal hydrops. Postnatal karyotype revealed mosaicism for trisomy 7, yet another rare finding in a live-born. The authors discuss their institutional experience with each of these rare conditions and the potential contribution of each to the overall unusual clinical presentation in this patient. This is the first report of these simultaneous diagnoses.”
“A fourth-power law relating the stress jump through a steady click here structured shock wave and the maximum strain rate within the shock wave has received recognition as a unifying relation over a sensibly wide range of materials and shock compression amplitudes. Less widely recognized is the complementary applicability of the invariance of the product of the energy dissipated and the time over which this energy is dissipated through a structure shock wave-a property with the dimensions of action. While the latter invariance implies the fourth-power behavior for steady shock waves,

this invariance also has an apparent application to unsteady structured waves under certain conditions. A brief history of the origin of the fourth-power law is provided. Some commentary is offered on the physical principles of solid viscosity in the shock wave and the underlying invariance of the energy-time product in the shock wave event. The results for steady structured waves in selleck kinase inhibitor porous and composite solids, which do not in general exhibit fourth-power behavior, are examined. Observations of systematic behaviors

with component cell size and impedance disparities suggest acoustic scattering may contribute to wave structuring in selected materials.”
“The dynamic mechanical properties of cotton/polypropylene (PP) commingled composite system was studied with reference to the fiber content, chemical treatments with potassium permanganate and maleic anhydride modified PP, processing GSK1904529A research buy conditions and applied frequency. Side by side commingling of matrix and reinforcing fibers was adopted for the fabrication of composite laminates as they provide the shortest melt flow distance during the melting of matrix fibers. This method can also be used for the recycling of textile wastes. The storage modulus was found to increase with the fiber content across a range of temperatures. The loss factor was found to decrease with the increase in fiber content while the glass transition temperature increases. The chemical treatments increase the value of storage modulus. A master curve was constructed and also made a comparison between the experimental results and the theoretically predicted values. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

A computed spin-polarized transmission coefficient in zero bias r

A computed spin-polarized transmission coefficient in zero bias reveals that resonant tunneling near the Fermi level occurs through some molecular orbitals of majority spin only. Thus, for low bias voltages, a spin-filtering effect such as only one spin component contributing to the conductance is expected. This effect would persist even with inclusion of additional electron correlations. c 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3072789]“
“A new dipyranocoumarin, -hydroxytomentolide A (1) was isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum apetalum together with the known compounds

friedelin (2), apetalactone (3), inophyllum C (4) and canophyllol (5). The structure of the new compound was established by spectroscopic studies which include H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, NOESY, HetCOSY, COLOC experiments and single crystal X-ray selleck chemical diffraction analysis.”
“The antioxidant and the tyrosinase inhibitory activities of 4 different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol, and water) for preparation of extracts from guava (branch, fruit,

leaf, and seed) were evaluated by measuring total phenolic contents (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power (RP), and tyrosinase inhibitory Selumetinib activity. The extracts of branch and leaf showed relatively higher antioxidant properties than those of fruit and seed. The highest TPC (141.28 mg/g gallic acid equivalents), DPPH radical scavenging NVP-BKM120 activity (IC(50)= 34.01 mu g/mL), ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC(50)= 3.23 mu g/mL), and RP (IC(50)= 75.63 mu g/mL) were found in acetone extract of leaf, while water extract of seed had the lowest antioxidant activity. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of ethanol extract from guava leaf was 69.56%, which was the highest activity among the extracts. These results indicate that useful bioactive substances exist in the guava branch as well as leaf extracts.”
“Wide band gap metal oxide semiconductors such as zinc oxide (ZnO) show visible band photolysis that

has been employed, among others, to degrade harmful organic contaminants into harmless mineral acids. Metal oxides show enhanced photocatalytic activity with the increase in electronic defects in the crystallites. By introducing defects into the crystal lattice of ZnO nanoparticles, we observe a redshift in the optical absorption shifting from the ultraviolet region to the visible region (400-700 nm), which is due to the creation of intermediate defect states that inhibit the electron hole recombination process. The defects were introduced by fast nucleation and growth of the nanoparticles by rapid heating using microwave irradiation and subsequent quenching during the precipitation reaction. To elucidate the nature of the photodegradation process, picosecond resolved time correlated single photon count (TCSPC) spectroscopy was carried out to record the electronic transitions resulting from the de-excitation of the electrons to their stable states.

Association between adult body weight and +2138InsCAGACC, another

Association between adult body weight and +2138InsCAGACC, another variant in the 3′ untranslated region of MC3R, has also been described.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine associations of C17A + G241A

and + 2138InsCAGACC MC3R variants with children’s energy balance.

Design: Children aged 6-19 y were genotyped for MC3R C17A, G241A, Navitoclax solubility dmso and + 2138InsCAGACC. Subjects underwent studies of energy intake from a 9835-kcal food array (n = 185), resting energy expenditure (REE) by using indirect calorimetry (n = 302), or total daily energy expenditure (TEE) by using doubly labeled water (n = 120). Linear regression was used to examine the associations between MC3R polymorphisms and the measures of energy balance.

Results: Body mass index and fat mass were greater in those with double homozygosity for C17A + G241A (P = 0.001). After accounting for covariates (including body composition), the number of minor C17A + G241A alleles was associated with significantly greater energy intake (beta = +0.15, P = 0.02) but not altered REE or TEE. No significant associations were observed between selleck kinase inhibitor + 2138InsCAGACC and measures

of either fat mass or energy balance.

Conclusions: C17A + G241A polymorphisms may be associated with pediatric obesity because of greater energy intake rather than because of diminished energy expenditure. + 2138InsCAGACC does not appear to be associated with obesity or measures of energy balance in children. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90: 912-20.”
“We assessed a sample of unselected adult asylum seekers to determine their

current mental health status and patterns of healthcare utilisation.

METHOD: We included 78 unselected adult asylum seekers after their first year of residence in the Zurich area of Switzerland. The Swiss Federal Office for Migration provided their names and addresses. The current mental health of the participants was assessed through diagnostic interviews. Their use of healthcare services and the resultant costs over a 12-month period were established by reference to the records of the responsible health insurance company.

RESULTS: Forty-one percent of participants had at least one psychiatric disorder, primarily major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Healthcare costs were about 1.8 LY2606368 purchase times those of the average resident population. Asylum seekers sought medical advice more than twice as often as did average residents. While they presented high psychiatric morbidity, they received very little specific treatment.

CONCLUSION: Asylum seekers incur higher healthcare costs than comparable residents. Mentally ill asylum seekers are underdiagnosed and often inadequately treated.”
“S45A, a double recessive mutant at both the BnMs1 and BnMs2 loci in Brassica napus, produces no pollen in mature anthers and no seeds by self-fertilization.

However, very few studies have examined the cognitive status of p

However, very few studies have examined the cognitive status of patients with genetically defined FRDA. Our aim was to study cognitive performance of FRDA patients taking into account the motor problems characteristic of this clinical population. Thirty-six FRDA patients were Selleckchem A-769662 administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery measuring multiple domains: processing speed, attention, working memory, executive functions, verbal and visual memory, visuoperceptive and visuospatial skills, visuoconstructive functions, and language.

Thirty-one gender, age, years of education, and estimated IQ-matched healthy participants served as control subjects. All participants were native Spanish speakers. Patients showed decreased motor and mental speed, problems in conceptual thinking, a diminished verbal fluency, deficits in acquisition of verbal information and use of semantic strategies in retrieval, visuoperceptive and visuoconstructive problems, and poor action naming. Scores on the depression inventory were significantly higher in patients than controls, but depression did not account for group differences in cognitive performance. The observed pattern of neuropsychological impairment is indicative of executive problems and parieto-temporal dysfunction. Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies with FRDA patients have reported only mild anomalies in cerebral hemispheres.

Thus, cognitive impairment in FRDA is probably caused by the interruption of the cerebro-cerebellar circuits that have been proposed as the anatomical substrate of LDN-193189 the cerebellar

involvement in cognition.”
“The oral microbiome consists of a planktonic microbiome residing in saliva and an adhering microbiome (the biofilm adhering to oral hard and soft tissues). Here we hypothesized that possible differences in microbial composition of the planktonic and adhering oral microbiome on teeth can be related to the forces by which different bacterial species are attracted to the tooth surface. The relative presence of 7 oral bacterial species in saliva and biofilm collected from 10 healthy human volunteers was determined twice in each volunteer by denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis. Analysis of both microbiomes showed complete separation of the planktonic from the adhering oral microbiome. Next, adhesion forces of corresponding bacterial strains selleck products with saliva-coated enamel surfaces were measured by atomic force microscopy. Species that were found predominantly in the adhering microbiome had significantly higher adhesion forces to saliva-coated enamel (-0.60 to -1.05 nN) than did species mostly present in the planktonic microbiome (-0.40 to -0.55 nN). It is concluded that differences in composition of the planktonic and the adhering oral microbiome are due to small differences in the forces by which strains adhere to saliva-coated enamel, providing an important step in understanding site- and material-specific differences in the composition of biofilms in the oral cavity.

In this study, Rhodococcus ruber CGMCC3090 is

used for 5-

In this study, Rhodococcus ruber CGMCC3090 is

used for 5-cyanovaleramide (5-CVAM) production by means of adiponitrile (ADN) hydration. Several parameters that affect the biocatalyzation process are investigated. RESULTS: The effective production of 5-CVAM from ADN with good regioselectivity was successfully achieved using the resting cells of Rhodococcus ruber CGMCC3090. The reaction parameters for 5-CVAM production were investigated during the experiment, and it was found that resting cells were effective in converting ADN at high selleck kinase inhibitor concentrations (up to 2.0 mol L-1) and the hydration reaction was slightly inhibited by different concentrations of 5-CVAM. After 100 min of incubation, more than 99.2% of the added adiponitrile was converted to 5-CVAM when the cell concentration was 1.05 g dry cell weight (DCW) L-1. CONCLUSION: The study provides a facile and feasible way of achieving high 5-CVAM production levels while maintaining high purity of the product obtained. Copyright (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Gum Arabic (Acacia) were used to fabricate nanoparticles (NPs) as a new nanocarrier for drug and bioactive delivery systems. Several parameters, namely LB-100 pH, protein to polysaccharide ratio, ionic strength, total biopolymer concentration, temperature, agitation speed and glutaraldehyde concentration were investigated for their effect on the product preparation process. Besides fabrication, the stabilization step including heating, ultrasonicating, cross-linking, and its effect on average size and polydispersity

of NPs was examined. RESULTS: Total biopolymer concentration had no marked effect on the average size of prepared NPs although it did affect other systems produced by complex coacervation. The most effective parameters were HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials pH, temperature and ionic strength, which affected this system (albumin-acacia) by a complicated route. The smallest size of prepared NPs (i.e. the best product) was 108 nm, which was fabricated under the optimum condition of T = 4 degrees C, pH = 4.9, $Pr:Ps = 2$, and Is = 0. CONCLUSION: Of the stabilization methods tested, heating gave the best results. The fabricated NPs were purified with a 0.45 mu m syringe filter and analyzed by PCS, SEM, FTIR and DSC. The mechanism of complex coacervation for preparing NPs, and their use as a nanodelivery system are discussed. Copyright (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“BACKGROUND: Many researchers focus on exploring approaches to improve lipid productivity by photosynthetic organisms. Metabolomic analysis provides a new way to globally explore metabolic changes.

(J Cardiac Fail 2012;18:433-438)”
“The macroscopic phase sep

(J Cardiac Fail 2012;18:433-438)”
“The macroscopic phase separation of undercooled liquid Fe50Sn50 immiscible alloy was investigated by both drop tube experiment and the modified Model H. Core-shell structures with two, three, and five layers were formed during experiment. The concentric shells comprised of Fe-rich phase and Sn-rich phase distribute periodically in the solidified droplet, and the Sn-rich phase is always located at the sample surface owing to its smaller surface tension. The

simulated results of modified Model H reproduce core-shell structures with the same layers, which justifies the prediction of this model. If the fluidity parameter C-f and solute concentration phi AZD1390 satisfy the physical conditions of both C-f < 1 and 0 <phi < 0.45 or C-f >= 1, the phase separation morphology exhibits the double-layer core-shell structure, whereas the multilayer core-shell structure is expected to form under the conditions of both C-f < 1 and 0.45 <phi < 0.5. The forming ability of core-shell structure for various immiscible alloys can be predicted Epigenetic pathway inhibitor accordingly.”
“Magnesium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Mg (CF3SO3)(2))-based polymer electrolytes (PEs) have been prepared with polyvinylidene

fluoride (PVdF) as a host matrix. Tetraglyme and tetrabutyl ammonium chloride (TBACl) were used as plasticizer and filler, respectively, in the matrix by solution-casting technique. The electrolyte containing 5 wt % TBACl exhibits the conductivity of 0.442 mS cm(-1) at ambient temperature. X-ray diffraction study reveals the amorphous nature of the PE. Linear sweep voltammetry was also performed to evaluate the decomposition potential of the electrolyte. The morphological features were analyzed by scanning

electron microscope. The activation energy has also been calculated, which corroborates the ionic conductivity results. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 3024-3029, 2009″
“Background: Hyperglycemia predicts death LDN-193189 in cardiovascular disease, but intensive glucose-lowering strategies increase mortality rates in diabetes. The present analysis investigated the prognostic value of postadmission blood glucose (BG) concentration on clinical outcomes in high-risk patients with heart failure after acute myocardial infarction.

Methods and Results: A total of 6,496 patients from the Eplerenone Post Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) were categorized into 4 groups by plasma glucose concentration: <= 4.5 mmol/L (hypoglycemia), 4.5-5.5 mmol/L (normoglycemia), 5.5-8.3 mmol/L (elevated glucose level), and >8.3 mmol/L (severe hyperglycemia). We evaluated the time to all-cause death (primary end point) and time to cardiovascular death or hospitalization (secondary end point). Hypo- and severe hyperglycemia were prevalent in 509 (8%) and 1,588 (24%) patients, respectively.

“Background: The most common pesticide products for contro

“Background: The most common pesticide products for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes combine BEZ235 supplier two distinct modes of action: 1) conventional insecticidal activity which kills mosquitoes exposed to the pesticide and 2) deterrence of mosquitoes away from protected humans. While deterrence enhances personal or household protection of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, it may also attenuate or even reverse communal protection if it diverts mosquitoes to non-users rather than killing them outright.

Methods: A process-explicit

model of malaria transmission is described which captures the sequential interaction between deterrent and toxic actions of vector control pesticides and accounts for the distinctive impacts of toxic activities which kill mosquitoes before or after

they have fed upon the occupant of a covered house or sleeping space.

Results: Increasing deterrency increases personal protection but consistently reduces communal protection because deterrent sub-lethal exposure inevitably reduces the proportion subsequently exposed to higher lethal doses. If the high coverage targets of the World Health Organization are achieved, purely toxic products with no deterrence are predicted to generally provide superior protection to non-users and even users, especially where vectors feed exclusively on humans and a substantial amount of transmission occurs outdoors. ATR inhibitor Remarkably, this is even the case if that product confers no personal protection and only kills mosquitoes after they have fed.

Conclusions: Products with purely mosquito-toxic profiles may, therefore, be preferable for programmes with universal coverage targets, rather than those with equivalent toxicity but which also have higher deterrence. However, if purely mosquito-toxic products confer little personal protection because they do not deter mosquitoes and only kill them after they have fed, then they will require aggressive “”catch up”" campaigns, with behaviour change communication

strategies that emphasize the communal nature of protection, to achieve high coverage rapidly.”
“To SNS-032 cost inhibit the ototoxicity of gentamicin (GM) and overcome the drawback related to chitosan (CS) nanoparticles preparation in acid solution, O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) nanoparticles loaded with GM and salicylic acid (SA) were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using calcium chloride as crosslinking agent. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the reaction of O-CMC and crosslinking agent. The parameters of preparation of the compound nanoparticles including the concentration of O-CMC, the mass ratio of O-CMC to calcium chloride, and the feed ratio of SA to GM were investigated. The results showed that the obtained nanoparticles had a high zeta potential and drug-loading capacity.

Design: This prospective study of 10 short prepubertal children (

Design: This prospective study of 10 short prepubertal children (height standard deviation score -2.37 +/- 0.31) buy GSI-IX used arginine and GH releasing hormone stimulation to study dynamic changes in the ternary complex moieties. IGFBP-3 was measured in two assays: a radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects both cleaved and intact IGFBP-3; and an immunochemiluminescence assay (ICMA) that detects only intact IGFBP-3.

Results: IGFBP-3 measured by RIA increased by 19% (p<0.05), while IGFBP-3 measured by ICMA did not significantly increase (6.1%).

Conclusion: The significant increase in IGFBP-3 measured by RIA, but not ICMA, provides

evidence of IGFBP-3 proteolysis during acute GH stimulation.”
“The objective of the study was to examine the factors associated with unidentified tuberculosis (TB) index cases (1987-2007) and to describe outbreaks (2000-2007) of childhood TB cases in Barcelona, Spain. Contact tracing seems to be fundamental in index case identification, but VX-661 cell line improvement could be made among older children and cases of extrapulmonary TB or pulmonary TB with sputum microscopy

“Infection with a genotype G strain of hepatitis B virus (HBV-G) often occurs as a co-infection with HBV genotype A. In mono-infection with HBV-G, the production of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBe antigen and anti-HBe seems diminished, hampering the serological diagnosis of HBV-G mono-infection. To corroborate this notion, we studied in detail a series of samples of a blood donor with transient HBV-G infection. In this donor, during the temporary presence of HBV DNA and the seroconversion to HBcore antibodies (anti-HBc), no HBsAg or hepatitis B e antigen was detected. During follow-up, no anti-HBe appeared. Multiple resistance mutations to lamivudine were present, demonstrating primary infection with a resistant HBV strain. Cloning and sequencing indicated that no other HBV genotype but genotype G was present. Like other HBV-G isolates, the DNA sequence of the HBsAg a-determinant showed no mutations that could explain the failure AZD1480 ic50 to detect HBsAg. Our findings demonstrate that HBV genotype G mono-infection

occurs and that routine serology is unsuitable for its detection.”
“Objective: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations have been associated with tumors and osteopenia or fractures in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We report 25OHD concentrations in 109 children with NF1 and 218 controls matched for age, sex, geographic location, and time of year.

Methods: Children with NF1 were recruited (n=109; 2-17 years), and clinical data and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements were obtained. 25OHD concentrations were measured in subjects and controls.

Results: More NF1 individuals (50%) were in the 25OHD insufficient or deficient range (<30 ng/mL) (1 ng/mL=2.496 nmol/L) compared to controls (36%) (p=0.0129).

In the early group, the first laser treatment started immediately

In the early group, the first laser treatment started immediately after surgery, and in the delayed group, Compound C mouse after 7 days. The grasping test was used for functional evaluation of the median nerve, before, 10, and 21 days after surgery, when the rats were killed. Three segments of the median nerve were analyzed histomorphometrically by light microscopy and computer analysis. The following features were observed: myelinated fiber and axon diameters, myelin sheath area, g-ratio, density and number of myelinated fibers,

and area and number of capillaries. In the proximal segment (site of crush), the nerves of animals submitted to early and delayed treatment showed myelinated fiber diameter and myelin sheath area significantly larger compared to the untreated group. In the distal segment, the myelin PCI-32765 mouse sheath area was significantly smaller in the untreated animals compared to the delayed group. The untreated, early, and delayed groups presented a 50, 57, and 81% degree of functional recovery, respectively,

at 21 days after injury, with a significant difference between the untreated and delayed groups. The results suggest that the nerves irradiated with low-power laser exhibit myelinated fibers of greater diameter and a better recovery of function.”
“The thinning of the overlying nasal skin and nasal SMAS layer and the variations in nasal bones consistency increase the risk of showing dorsal contour irregularities after osteotomies of this site.

The authors present their experience with combined nasal dorsal osteotomies and insertion of a SMAS strip graft, harvested during facelift procedure in 6 aging patients.

Postoperative follow-up time ranged from 1 year to 7 years and showed excellent outcomes: no infection,

graft migration, or reabsorption was detected.

Due to the ease of execution of the procedure and taking into account this graft as an ideal soft-tissue augmentation composed by fat, muscle, and fascia, the SMAS strip autograft represents another viable option for nasal dorsum contouring in the patient presenting also for rhythidectomy.”
“The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) to Selleck GDC-0032 control type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been demonstrated in morbidly obese patients. Surgical procedures primarily focused on T2DM control in patients with body mass index (BMI) < 35 kg/m(2) have shown to effectively induce remission of T2DM. However, only few reports have evaluated the safety and efficacy of RYGB in this group of patients. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of RYGB in TD2M patients with BMI < 35 kg/m(2). All T2DM patients with BMI < 35 kg/m(2) and at least 12 months of follow-up who underwent laparoscopic RYGB were included. Safety of the procedure was evaluated according to mortality, need of reoperation/conversion, and complication rates. Metabolic parameters were evaluated at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery.

The formulation which showed a highest permeation rate of 47 15 +

The formulation which showed a highest permeation rate of 47.15 +/- 1.12 A mu g cm(-2) h(-1) and appropriate physicochemical properties was optimized as containing BAY 80-6946 2% FLZ, 10% LA, 20% Lab/EtOH (1:1), and 68% double-distilled water (w/w). The efficiency of microemulsion formulation in the topical delivery of FLZ was dependent upon the contents of water and LA as well as Lab/EtOH mixing ratio. It was concluded that the percutaneous absorption of FLZ from microemulsions was enhanced with increasing the LA and water contents, and with decreasing the Lab/EtOH ratio in the formulation. Candida albicans was used as a model

fungus to evaluate the antifungal activity of the best formula achieved, which showed the widest zone of inhibition as compared to FLZ reference. The studied microemulsion formulation showed a good stability for a period of 3 months. These results indicate that the studied selleck inhibitor microemulsion formulation might be a promising vehicle for topical delivery of FLZ.”
“We show that a shunt capacitor, by coupling each Josephson junction to all the other junctions, stabilizes synchronized oscillations in an intrinsic Josephson junction stack biased by a dc current. This synchronization mechanism is similar to the previously discussed radiative coupling between junctions, however, it is not defined by

the geometry of the stack. It is particularly important in crystals with smaller numbers of junctions (where the radiation coupling is weak), buy GANT61 and is comparable with the effect of strong super-radiation in crystals with many junctions. The shunt also helps to enter the phase-locked regime in the beginning of the oscillations, after switching on the bias current. Furthermore, it may be used to tune radiation power, which drops as the shunt capacitance increases. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:

“Porous silk fibroin (SF) microparticles were prepared by a simple one-step water-in-oil emulsification-diffusion method. Aqueous SF solution and organic phase solvent were used as water and oil phases, respectively. Four organic solvents with different water solubility were studied, i.e., ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, and chloroform. Influences of organic phase solvent, water/oil volume ratio, and SF concentration on SF microparticle characteristics were investigated. It was found that shape of the SF microparticles depended upon the type of organic phase solvent. The SF microparticles with hollow or bowl-like shape were fabricated when organic solvents with higher water solubility, which are ethyl acetate and diethyl ether, were used as the continuous oil phase. While using organic solvents with lower water solubility, i.e., dichloromethane and chloroform resulted in the spherical shape SF microspheres.