Despite the increased use of pCLE, there are hardly any data on the ideal fluorescein concentration. Therefore, rectal mucosa of pigs was examined after injection (i.v.) of fluorescein as a single bolus (0.1 ml/kg body weight) in different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%. 10%). Video sequences were recorded after 1, 5 and 60 min. For objective evaluation signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was computed. For subjective evaluation, video sequences were randomized and blindly evaluated by experienced endo-microscopists. In total, 19037 images were analyzed. The mean
SNR increased from the lowest (0.5%; SNR 6.75, range 3.55) to the highest concentration (10%; SNR 9.11, range 3.118). 3-deazaneplanocin A molecular weight Subjective evaluation demonstrated
best image quality with fluorescein concentration of 5%. In conclusion, pCLE shows best results using single injection of IV fluorescein 5%.”
“Fine silica-like lines with 11 nm width are successfully fabricated using x-ray Fresnel diffraction exposure. X-rays pass selleck products a mask of 175-nm-wide lines and 125-nm- wide spaces and form sharp peaks on a wafer coated with a layer of hydrogen silsesquioxane resist (HSQ). By precisely controlling the mask-wafer gap at 10 mu m using the laser interferogram method, the fine structures are defined on HSQ. Experimental images are reproduced by a simulation using the one-dimensional beam propagation method. This lithographic technique presents a novel and convenient way to fabricate fine silica-like structures and devices in nano-optical and nanoelectronic applications.”
transgenic plants can be developed through transposon-mediated transgene reintegration, which allows intact transgene insertion with defined boundaries and requires only a few primary transformants. In this study, we improved the selection strategy and validated that the maize (Zea mays) Activator/Dissociation (Ds) transposable element can be routinely used to generate marker-free transgenic plants. A Ds-based see more gene of interest was linked to green fluorescent protein in transfer DNA (TDNA), and a green fluorescent protein-aided counterselection against T-DNA was used together with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based positive selection for the gene of interest to screen marker-free progeny. To test the efficacy of this strategy, we cloned the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin gene into the Ds elements and transformed transposon vectors into rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR assays of the transposon empty donor site exhibited transposition in somatic cells in 60.5% to 100% of the rice transformants. Marker-free (T-DNA-free) transgenic rice plants derived from unlinked germinal transposition were obtained from the T1 generation of 26.1% of the primary transformants.
(-)-CXL017 was also shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of thapsigargin in HL60/MX2 cells. Given the elevated SERCA levels and ER calcium content in HL60/MX2, SERCA likely plays a
Navitoclax cell line significant role in the collateral sensitivity of this multidrug-resistance cell line to CXL molecules as well as known SERCA inhibitors.”
“Background: The relationship between oral vitamin D supplementation and cutaneous photosynthesis is not well understood.\n\nObjective: We sought to provide estimates of the equivalency of vitamin D production from natural sun exposure versus oral supplementation.\n\nMethods: Using the FastRT simulation tool, we determined sun exposure times needed to achieve serum vitamin
D(3) concentrations equivalent to 400 or 1000 IU vitamin D for individuals of various Fitzpatrick skin types living in Miami, FL, and Boston, MA, during the months of January, April, July, and October.\n\nResults: Peak ultraviolet B irradiation for vitamin D synthesis occurs around 12 PM Eastern Standard Time (EST). In Boston, MA, from April to October at 12 pm EST an individual with type III skin, with 25.5% of the body surface area exposed, would need to spend 3 to 8 minutes in the sun to synthesize 400 IU of vitamin D. Ills difficult to synthesize vitamin D during the winter in Boston, MA. For SHP099 ic50 all study months in Miami, FL, an individual with type III skin would need to spend 3 to 6 minutes at 12 PM EST to synthesize 400 IU. Vitamin D synthesis occurs faster
in individuals with lighter Fitzpatrick skin types. The duration to attain 1000 IU of vitamin D is longer in all scenarios.\n\nLimitations: Results of the computer model are only approximations. In addition, calculations were made based on the assumption that (1)/(4) of 1 minimal erythema close directed at (1)/(4) body surface area is equal to 1000 IU of oral vitamin D.\n\nConclusions: Although it may be tempting to recommend intentional sun exposure based on our findings, it is difficult, if not impossible to titrate one’s exposure. There are well-known detrimental side effects of ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, oral supplementation remains the safest way for increasing vitamin D status. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2010;62:929-34.)”
“Background: SMAD4 is a gastrointestinal https://www.selleckchem.com/products/baricitinib-ly3009104.html malignancy-specific tumor suppressor gene found mutated in one third of colorectal cancer specimens and half of pancreatic tumors. SMAD4 inactivation by allelic deletion or intragenic mutation mainly occurs in the late stage of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Various studies have proposed potential SMAD4-mediated anti-tumor effects in human malignancy; however, the relevance of SMAD4 in the PDAC molecular phenotype has not yet been fully characterized.\n\nMethods: The AsPC-1, CFPAC-1 and PANC-1 human PDAC cell lines were used.
(C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The etiologic agents of tinea capitis have traditionally been very stable with respect to geographic boundaries, with different anthropophilic or zoophilic species serving as the primary agents in particular countries and even continents. With recent increases in immigration and international travel, these traditional patterns are being learn more challenged. We report a case of tinea capitis due to Trichophyton soudanense in a West-African-born boy living in Chicago, Illinois.”
“Familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency
is an uncommon autosomal recessive disorder from a heritable defect in esterification of plasma cholesterol. In 1968, the disease was described
by Gjone and Norum in Norway.\n\nOur case was a 38-year-old woman. Her disease was manifested by presence of lower extremities edema, proteinuria, corneal opacities, increased plasma cholesterol, and hemolytic anemia. Suspicion of the disease was based on renal biopsy, which revealed mesangial expansion and capillary wall widening with clusters of foamy cells in the mesangium. Lonafarnib research buy Immunofluorescence study was nonspecific, but specific findings of electron microscopy showed deposition of lipid in the glomerular basement membrane and mesangium. This is the first report of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency in Iran.\n\nThe diagnosis was confirmed by a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, decreased activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in plasma, and positive familial history of the disease.”
“It is an effective warning tool for using the sensors to monitor the geo-hazards such as landslide. All of the sensors pressure cells have been produced and installed successfully selleck compound for many years, but the accuracy of measured pressured is often inadequate, The pressure measurement with pressure cells can be affected by different factors such as temperature, surrounding
material, stiffness of pressure cells and size of pressure cells. In all the factors the one from the material aspect is mostly obvious. Measured pressure and arrangements of material, contact area, material properties are related. In our study, the coal samples and rock samples are used to as the filling material in order to research the impacts from arrangements of material, contact area, material properties. In addition, the paper focuses on how arrangements of material and contact area affect the response time which is one index that reflects the performance of a sensor. Some practical recommendations are presented to give the helps about the improvement of pressure cells.”
“In this paper, we present the first implementation of our 0-60-kV picosecond rise time 1-10-ns pulse generator. The pulse generator will be used in future work to generate a (sub-)nanosecond streamer plasma for air purification research.
We were able to achieve ultrafiltration (UF) goals of 1-3 kg during hemodialysis sessions in all three patients, consistently, for months, a feat that was not possible previously. This novel modality of managing IDH is complementary to other standard therapies. Larger multi-center studies are warranted.”
“We study theoretically the optical properties PCI-34051 manufacturer of embedded Ce and Si nanocrystals (NCs) in wide band-gap matrix and compared the obtained results for both NCs embedded in SO2 matrix. We Calculate the ground and excited electron and hole levels in both Ge and Si nanocrystals (quantum dots) in a multiband effective mass approximation. We use the envelope function approximation taking into account the elliptic
symmetry of the bottom of the conduction band and the complex structure of the top of the valence band in both Si and Ge (NCs). The Auger recombination PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 (AR) in both nanocrystals is
thoroughly investigated The excited electron (EE), excited hole (EE) and blexciton AR types are considered. The Auger recombination (AR) lifetime in both NCs has been estimated and compared Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B V. All rights reserved”
“Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) exist ubiquitously as pivotal molecules to regulate coding gene expression. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a NAD-dependent deacetylase which is involved in myogenesis. However, whether Sirtl transcribes NAT during C2C12 differentiation is still unknown. In this study, we identified a Sirt1 NAT which was designated as Sirt1 antisense long non-coding RNA (AS IncRNA) by sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. The level of Sirt1 AS IncRNA was greater in spleen but less in muscle tissue. The expression of both Sirt1 mRNA and Sirt1 AS lncRNA decreased during C2C12 myogenic differentiation, whereas the levels of miR-34a, which targets Sirtl, increased gradually. We further found that the half-life of Sirt1 AS IncRNA was 10 h, but that of Sirt1 mRNA was 6 h in C2C12 cells treated
with 2 mu g/ml Actinomycin D. Therefore, compared with Sirtl mRNA, Sirt1 AS IncRNA was more stable. Overexpression of Sirt1 AS IncRNA increased the levels of Sirt1 protein, whereas overexpression Baf-A1 of Sirt1 AS IncRNA mutant did not affect the level of Sirt1 protein in C2C12 cells. Moreover, downregulation of Sirt1 mRNA caused by miR-34a was counteracted by Sirtl AS IncRNA in C2C12 cells. Taken together, we identified a novel NAT of Sirtl which implicated in myogenesis through regulating Sirtl expression. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Model Quality Assessment Programs (MQAPs) are used to predict the quality of modeled protein structures. These usually use two approaches: methods using consensus of many alternative models and methods requiring only a single model to do its prediction. The consensus methods are useful to improve overall accuracy; however, they frequently fail to pick out the best possible model and cannot be used to generate and score new structures.
All our data, in particular the large number of fragments found, suggest high proteolytic activity insight the oral cavity.
The analysis of samples by gelatin zymography showed that all saliva donors displayed selleck kinase inhibitor multiple proteolytic bands, two identified as cathepsin D and G by MS. Analysis of the cleavage site distribution on the main peptide sequences based on contingency tables shows that the predominant cleavages occur between Gln-Gly or Tyr-Gly. These cleavages are largely associated with prohne-rich proteins peptides and with histatin 1 and P-B peptide, respectively. However, depending on the peptide class, different cleavage hits were observed suggesting the presence of a set of proteases acting in different ways according to different peptide sequences. Comparing the number of cleavages involving all residues, it is possible to observe that 44% (10%) of the observed cleavages in histatin, statherin and P-B peptide in all individuals may be explained by cathepsin D, suggesting a major role for this enzyme in oral cavity proteolysis.”
“The aims of this study were to profile casein phosphopeptides in goat milk, to accurately determine the site of phosphorylation,
and to evaluate whether or not any of the casein phosphorylation patterns were specific to a given physiological condition. Goat milk, collected before and after experimental induction of endotoxin mastitis, was separated by SDSPAGE. Z-DEVD-FMK Casein bands DMH1 mw were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nLC MS/MS. Eight out of nine predicted tryptic phosphopeptides corresponding to 18 different phosphorylation sites were detected in alpha(s1)-, a(s2)-, and beta-casein. Characterization of the phosphorylation sites illustrated the capability
of tandem MS to accurately localize phosphorylated residues among a number of other putative sites. Despite an apparent lower abundance, almost all of the phosphopeptides were also detected in milk samples obtained from the goats following experimental induction of endotoxin mastitis. However, a tetraphosphopeptide in alpha(s2)-casein was only observed in the milk samples obtained from healthy animals. The absence of this multiphosphopeptide in the mastitic goat milk samples could indicate changes in phosphorylation as a result of disease and potentially be used as a marker for milk quality. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of casein phosphoproteome and reveals a much higher level of phosphorylation than previously demonstrated in goat milk.”
“Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, a fairly common disease of older persons, is a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis, and is often associated with coronary artery disease. It is frequently associated with hypertension and impaired renal function, and is perceived by many physicians to be the cause of hypertension and renal failure.
\n\nFor some findings, especially the effects on MI-503 clinical trial the thymolymphatic system and sexual organs, it cannot be excluded that starvation-like condition contributed to the occrrence of such changes. The low dose of 20 mg/kg bw/day was basically free of adverse effects despite of a clear evidence for hemoglobin adducts. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland
Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Electrospinning experiments for solutions of two polymers with different crystallization rates, polylatic acid (PLA), and nylon 6 solutions have been carried out. Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) was used as a common solvent to dissolve both PLA and nylon 6. Using the fact that nylon 6 has the faster crystallization rate than PLA, the effect of thermal annealing conditions on the crystal structures of two electrospun fibers has mainly been studied
via thermal and mechanical analysis. First, optimal conditions for the formation of uniform nanofibers have been determined by observing their morphology and rheological properties. Thermal analysis revealed that PLA as-spun fiber exhibits cold crystallization due to insufficient crystal growth in spinline. Also, the effect of thermal annealing on the structural change of nylon 6 fibers including the degree of flow-induced crystallization is totally different from that of PLA fibers. S3I-201 cost Finally, tensile measurements of annealed fibers show that the ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus gradually increases with increasing annealing time for both PLA and nylon 6 mats, resulting from the further growth of crystal structures. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci
120: 752-758, 2011″
“By now, all dental schools should understand the need to increase the enrollment of underrepresented minority (URM) students. While there has been a major increase in the number of Hispanic/Latino, African American/Black, and Native American applicants to dental schools over the past decade, there has not been a major percent increase in the enrollment of URM students except in the schools A-1210477 mouse participating in the Pipeline. Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program, which have far exceeded the percent increase in enrollment of URM students in other U.S. dental schools during Phase I of the program (2002-07). Assuming that all dental schools wish to improve the diversity of their student bodies, chapters 9-12 of this report- for which this chapter serves as an introduction provide strategies learned from the Pipeline schools to increase the applications and enrollment of URM students. Some of the changes that the Pipeline schools put into place were the result of two focus group studies of college and dental students of color. These studies provided guidance on some of the barriers and challenges students of color face when considering dentistry as a career.
The method worked better for some standards and in some settings than for others, and is being improved in the light of experience gained. Such applications are increasingly important as modern regulators strive to be targeted and proportionate in their activities.”
“The environmental hazard situation of the Three Gorges area has become more and more serious. Due to the urgency and importance of the problem, the treatment of environmental hazard is of special concern. In recent years, various related factors of the Three Gorges area have been extensively discussed. This paper has reviewed the environmental hazards type, the reasons for the ecological environment hazard and the strengthen measures
for resisting environmental disaster. The environmental hazards type include the geologic hazard, the plants and animals www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1838705a.html deterioration,
the climate disaster, “the three wastes” pollution and the chemical appliance pollution. The geologic https://www.selleckchem.com/products/KU-55933.html hazard include the aggravated water losses and soil erosion, the increasing rockfalls disaster and the latent earthquake disaster. The plants and animals deterioration means some cherish tree species and fish species disappeared and deteriorated. The climate disaster include flood disaster, wind damage, hailstone, cold damage and high temperature. “The three wastes” pollution include the waste residue pollution, the waste water pollution and selleck inhibitor the waste gas pollution. The chemical appliance pollution contain the chemical fertilizer, pesticide and mulch. The reasons for the ecological environment hazards are the muff coordination and management, the rapid population explosion, the unbalance between the input and output, the imperfect legal system and the worse bearing function. The strengthen measures for resisting environmental disaster should be done. Enhancing the environmental management and protecting the ecological environment
are the essential approaches.”
“Temperature and mass dependency of insect metabolic rates are well known, while less attention has been given to other factors, such as age. Among insect species that experience seasonal variation in environmental conditions, such as in temperate latitudes, age may also have indirect effects on the metabolic rate. We examined the effect of age on the resting metabolic rate of Leptinotarsa decemlineata during 11 days after adult emergence by using flow-through respirometry. Age had a significant mass-independent effect on metabolic rate of beetles. A twofold increase in metabolic rate occurred during the first 2 days of adult life after which metabolic rate decreased with age relatively slowly. Ten day-old adult beetles had a metabolic rate similar to newly emerged beetles. The beetles have to be able to complete their development and prepare for overwintering during the relatively short favourable summer periods.
The patients were randomized to receive eribulin or any single-agent treatment of the physician’s choice, selected prior to randomization. The FDA’s approval of eribulin mesylate was based on demonstration of a statistically significant prolongation of overall survival (OS) in patients who had been randomized to receive eribulin. The median OS was 13.1 months in the eribulin arm compared with 10.6 months in the control arm [HR 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66-0.99); P = 0.041]. Treatment with eribulin did not
show a statistically significant treatment effect [HR 0.87 (95% CI, 0.71-1.05)] on progression-free survival as determined by independent review. This approval highlights the appropriate use of an innovative trial design and shows that improvement in OS is an achievable endpoint in the setting of advanced breast cancer. On the basis of the different conclusions arising from the OS and progression-free Quizartinib mouse survival check details results, investigators should consider using OS as a primary endpoint in clinical trials for refractory breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 18(6); 1496-505. (C)2012 AACR.”
“Cheville AL, Basford JR, Troxel AB, Kornblith AB. Performance of common clinician- and self-report measures in assessing the function of community-dwelling people with metastatic breast cancer. Arch Phys
Med Rehabil 2009;90:2116-24.\n\nObjective: To characterize the performance of common clinician- and self-report measures of function in assessing community-dwelling people with metastatic breast cancer.\n\nDesign: Cross-sectional study.\n\nSetting: Z-VAD-FMK in vivo A tertiary medical center outpatient
cancer clinic.\n\nParticipants: A consecutive sample of community-dwelling patients (N=163) with stage IV breast cancer.\n\nInterventions: Not applicable.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Physical Functioning (PF-10) and Role Physical subscales; the Older Americans Resource Study (OARS) activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL subscales; Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS); and the FIM Total and FIM Mobility scores.\n\nResults: With the exception of the PF-10 and Role Physical subscales, which demonstrated floor effects, ceiling effects were detected in all the measures and were particularly persistent in the OARS ADL subscale. Instrument and item score distributions varied markedly across KPS-defined subgroups with FIM Mobility, FIM Total, and OARS subscale score distributions deviating least from the normal in the lowest performing (KPS 40-50) participants. Correlations between self-reported (Role Physical subscales, PF-10, OARS ADL subscales) and the clinician-rated (KPS and FIM scales) scales were moderate to high (r=.55-.82); however, clinician-reported scores were more consistently associated with the presence of physical impairments.
04; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.22; low-quality evidence), symptomatic DVT (RR 0.51; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.22; low-quality evidence), major bleeding (RR 7.60; 95% CI 0.94 to 61.49; very-low-quality evidence), or minor bleeding (RR 3.14; 95% CI 0.14 to 71.51). The use of heparin, compared BKM120 solubility dmso with VKA was associated with a statistically significant increase in thrombocytopenia (RR 3.73; 95% CI
2.26 to 6.16; low-quality evidence) and asymptomatic DVT (RR 1.74; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.52). However, results did not show or exclude a beneficial or detrimental effect on any of the other outcomes of interest (very-low-quality evidence). Authors’ conclusions Compared with no anticoagulation, we found a statistically significant reduction of symptomatic DVT with heparin and asymptomatic DVT with VKA. Heparin was associated with a higher risk of thrombocytopenia and asymptomatic DVT when compared with VKA. However, the findings did not rule out other clinically important benefits and harms. People with cancer with CVCs considering anticoagulation should balance the possible benefit of reduced
HM781-36B thromboembolic complications with the possible harms and burden of anticoagulants.”
“The distribution, morphology and nuclear subdivisions of the putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems within the brain of the greater canerat (sometimes spelt cane rat) were identified following immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences
in the complement of nuclear subdivisions of these systems when comparing those of the greater canerat with reports of these systems in other rodents. The greater canerat selleck compound was chosen for investigation as it is a large rodent (around 2.7 kg body mass) and has an average brain mass of 13.75 g, more than five times larger than that of the laboratory rat. The greater canerats used in the present study were caught from the wild, which is again another contrast to the laboratory rat. While these differences, especially that of size, may lead to the prediction of significant differences in the nuclear complement of these systems, we found that all nuclei identified in both systems in the laboratory rat and other rodents in several earlier studies had direct homologs in the brain of the greater canerat. Moreover, there were no additional nuclei in the brain of the greater canerat that are not found in the laboratory rat or other rodents. It is noted that the locus coeruleus of the laboratory rat differs in appearance to that reported for several other rodent species. The greater canerat is phylogenetically distant from the laboratory rat, but still a member of the order Rodentia. Thus, changes in the nuclear organization of these systems appears to demonstrate a form of constraint related to the phylogenetic level of the order. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for cerebrospinal fluid, normal pancreatic parenchyma, and for each focal pancreatic lesion. Imaging results were correlated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasound-guided line needle aspiration, surgery and/or imaging follow-up.\n\nResults: Mean ADC value was 4.1 x
10(-3) mm(2)/s for cerebrospinal fluid, 1.73 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s for normal pancreatic parenchyma, 4.09×10(-3) mm(2)/is for IPMT, 3.89×10(-3) mm(2)/s for mucinous cystoadenoma, 3.65×10(-3) mm2/s for serous cystoadenoma and 2.83×10(-3) mm(2)/s for pseudocyst. Mean ADC values of each of the different types of pancreatic lesions were statistically different (P<.05).\n\nConclusion: SCH 900776 supplier Selleckchem GSK621 DW-MRI may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The newborn classified as growth-restricted on fetal weight curves, but not on birth weight curves, is classified prenatally as small for gestational age (SGA), but postnatally as appropriate for gestational age (AGA).\n\nAims: To see (1) to what extent the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months corrected age differed among three
groups of infants (those identified as SGA based on birth weight curves (B-SGA), those identified as SGA based on fetal weight curves only (F-SGA), and the referent group of infants considered AGA, (2) if girls and boys were equally affected by growth restriction, and (3) to what extent neurosensory limitations influenced what we found.\n\nStudy design: Observational cohort of births before the 28th week
of gestation.\n\nOutcome measures: Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II.\n\nResults: B-SGA, but not F-SGA girls were at an increased risk of a PDI<70 (OR=2.8: 95% CI: 1.5, 5.3) compared to AGA girls. B-SGA and F-SGA boys were not at greater risk of low developmental indices than AGA boys. Neurosensory limitations diminished associations among girls of B-SGA with low GS-9973 order MDI, and among boys B-SGA and F-SGA with PDI<70.\n\nConclusions: Only girls with the most severe growth restriction were at increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment at 24 months corrected age in the total sample. Neurosensory limitations appear to interfere with assessing growth restriction effects in both girls and boys born preterm. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Glyphosate is widely used for weed control in the grape growing industry in southern Australia. The intensive use of glyphosate in this industry has resulted in the evolution of glyphosate resistance in rigid ryegrass. Two populations of rigid ryegrass from vineyards, SLR80 and SLR88, had 6- to 11-fold resistance to glyphosate in dose-response studies.