To address the question of whether conditioned placebo analgesia

To address the question of whether conditioned placebo analgesia can persist in the absence of expectations, we studied the effects of long (4 days) versus short (1 day) conditioning to a placebo Selleckchem AZD6738 treatment. After an initial placebo test, a “reveal” manipulation convincingly demonstrated to participants that they had never received an active drug. Placebo analgesia persisted after the reveal in the long conditioning group only. These findings suggest that reinforcing

treatment cues with positive outcomes can create placebo effects that are independent of reported expectations for pain relief. Perspective: This article demonstrates a form of placebo analgesia that relies on prior conditioning rather than current expected pain relief. This highlights the importance of prior experience on pain relief and offers insight into the variability of placebo effects across individuals. (C) 2015 by the American Pain Society”
“Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) has been used in cancer gene therapy largely due to its ability to selectively infect and replicate in tumor cells. However, because the oncolytic antitumor activity is insufficient to effectively eliminate tumors, various strategies have been devised to improve the therapeutic GSK1210151A order efficacy. Single-vector Ads “armed” with short hairpin RNA, cytokines, or matrix-modulating proteins have been developed. Two clear advantages are viral amplification of the therapeutic

gene, and the additive effects of oncolytic and therapeutic gene-mediated antitumor activities. To develop systemically injectable Ad carriers, strategies to modify the Ad surface with polymers, liposomes, or nanoparticles have been shown

to extend circulation time, reduce immunogenicity, and result in increased antitumor effect as well as lower accumulation and toxicity in liver. Specific targeting platforms for tumor-selective oncolytic therapies against both primary and metastatic cancers have been developed. This review will focus on updated strategies to develop potent oncolytic Ads for use Tubastatin A in cancer treatment. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Among the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in plants is the regulation of its uptake and tissue partitioning. Here we characterized a newly identified member of the conserved CTR/COPT family of copper transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana, COPT6. We showed that COPT6 resides at the plasma membrane and mediates copper accumulation when expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae copper uptake mutant. Although the primary sequence of COPT6 contains the family conserved domains, including methionine-rich motifs in the extracellular N-terminal domain and a second transmembrane helix (TM2), it is different from the founding family member, S. cerevisiae Ctr1p. This conclusion was based on the finding that although the positionally conserved Met(106) residue in the TM2 of COPT6 is functionally essential, the conserved Met(27) in the N-terminal domain is not.

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