MCs were also detected in flounder (Paralichthys
olivaceus) and prawn (Metapenaeus joyneri), and the batellarid snail, Batillaria cumingii, collected at station C2 was highly contaminated. The pollution of MCs extends beyond the hydrosphere into the surrounding land ecosystem. MCs were also found in this website chiromonid flies (primarily Microchironomus tabarui, along with a small number Chironomus plmosus), as well as their predators, the long-jawed spider (Tetragnatha praedonia) and the dragonfly (Pantala flavescens). Chiromonids and spiders were collected on an overpass in the center of the dike road. Dragonflies were collected around the north drainage gate. We have directly observed chiromonids being eaten by the spiders and dragonflies. In addition, Metabolism inhibitor the levels of MCs per dry weight were 5.2 and 7.6 times higher in spiders and dragonflies than in their chiromonid prey, indicative of bioaccumulation within these insects ( Table 6). The tidal flat of Isahaya Bay lost as part of the reclamation project covered ∼25.5 km2, ∼6.5 km2 of which was converted into farmland, with the remaining area occupied by a 20 km2 reservoir. The mean depth of the reservoir is 1.4 m, with a total water volume of ∼29 million tons (Water quality committee of Isahaya Bay reservoir, 2007). However, these figures are likely to be out of date, with the actual depth of the reservoir significantly reduced due to sedimentation that has occurred since its creation in 1997. Core sampling
at station R3 revealed the strata of the tidal flat, which includes a shell and coarse sand layer underneath the soft bottom sediment at depth of ∼20–40 cm. Although drainage of the reservoir is a routine event, the combined length of Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) the drainage gates is only 250 m for a dike of 7 km, and does not appear to disturb sedimentation due to rivers or by particulate organic matter produced within the reservoir. However, the shallow
depth of the reservoir leads to considerable stirring of the bottom sediment by the wind, slowing the sedimentation rate. The high concentration of fine sediment in the reservoir (d50 ∼4 μm, Umehara, unpublished data), combined with the stirring effects of the wind, leads to extremely low transparency (∼15 cm) at all times of the day. These effects significantly limit stratification and hypoxia in the bottom layer of the reservoir, even during daytime hours. The extremely low transparency creates a very thin layer of water receiving sufficient light intensity to support eukaryotic phytoplankton, limited by the lack of light below 30–40 cm, and photoinhibition on the surface. On the other hand, prokaryotic cyanobacteria are well adapted to the strong light on the surface of the water, which may account for their dominance within the reservoir. Total displacement from the southern and northern drainage gates from 1998 to 2012 was 5.66 billion tons, with an additional 100,000 tons of compulsory drainage from the center of the embankment every day.