Nuclei were visualized by incubating click here for 10 min with 0.1 μg/ml 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole
(DAPI; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) in PBS and F-actin filaments by incubation in Texas Red-labeled phalloidin (5 U/ml; Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY, USA). Fluorescent secondary antibodies were used according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Jackson ImmunoResearch, West Grove, PA, USA; Southern Biotechnology, Birmingham, AL, USA; Invitrogen), and sections were analyzed using Olympus or Leica laser-scanning microscopes. Pregnant mice were operated on as approved by the Government of Upper Bavaria under license number 55.2-1-54-2531-144/07 and were anaesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of saline solution containing Fentanyl (0.05 mg/kg), Midazolam (5 mg/kg), and Medetomidine (0.5 mg/kg;Betäubungsmittel license number: 4518395), and E13/E14 embryos were electroporated as described before (Saito, 2006). pCIG2 containing a GFP or CreGFP, RhoA∗GFP and Gap43GFP plasmids were mixed with Fast Green (2.5 mg/μl; Sigma) and injected at the concentration of 1μg/μl. Anesthesia was terminated S3I-201 manufacturer by Buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg), Atipamezol (2.5 mg/kg), and
Flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg). Embryos were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA), and vibratome sections of 100 μm were analyzed using Olympus laser-scanning microscopes. Cortical embryonic cells were dissociated and incubated in trypsin for 15 min with green cell tracker (Invitrogen C7025), and 70.000 cells/μl were resuspended in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium, and 1 μl was injected into the ventricle of E13 or E14 embryos. Mice were anaesthetized as described previously. Embryos/pups were fixed in 4% PFA, and vibratome sections of 100 μm were analyzed using Olympus laser-scanning microscopes. GFP, Ph3, Tbr1, Ctip2, Cux1, and GAD67+ cells were quantified by counting all positive cells in a radial stripe comprising all cortical layers. Quantifications are given as the mean ± SEM; statistical significance was tested
with the unpaired student’s t test or unequal variance t test. c-Fos and Egr-1+ cells were quantified using a NeuroLucida device and StereoInvestigator software (MBF Bioscience, Magdeburg, Germany). Cells were counted in a vertical stripe (layers II–VI). At least five sections for each experimental next animal were examined. Cortices from embryonic brains were lysed in RIPA buffer containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors (Roche, Madison, WI, USA), and 20 μg of total protein were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and transferred to PVDF membranes (Biorad, Berkley, CA, USA), which were incubated with primary antibodies followed by horseradish peroxidase-labeled secondary antibodies (1:25000; Amersham, Little Chalfont, UK) detected by ECL Western Blotting Detection (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA). Quantification of bands was performed using ImageJ software. Primary antibodies are listed in Table S1. The G-actin and F-actin fractions were separated by centrifugation (Posern et al., 2002).