Intake of acetaminophen like drugs and certain chemicals may also lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogenic dialkyl nitrosoamine present in tobacco smoke, water, cheddar cheese, cured and fried meals and in a number of alcoholic beverages. It is a hepatocarcinogen producing reproducible HCC after repeated administration. 1 The formation of reactive
oxygen species (ROS) during the metabolism of NDEA may be one of the key factors in the etiology of cancer. 2 HCC is associated with over expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which are produced by hepatocytes in the periportal area of liver tissue. 3 In addition to the animal experimental models of cancer, human cancer cell lines have been widely used to study the antiproliferative effect. AZD2281 datasheet Numerous components of plants, collectively termed “phytochemicals” have been reported to possess substantial chemopreventive properties. Development of nontoxic and biologically safe anticarcinogenic agent has been highlighted as a promising way to treat carcinogenesis.4 Several herbal drugs like Acacia nilotica, Achyranthes aspera, Scutia myrtina, etc have been evaluated for its potential as liver protectant against NDEA
induced hepatotoxicity in rats. 1, 5 and 6 Woodfordia fruticosa (Lythraceae) is a traditional medicinal plant and its dried flowers are used as tonic in Libraries disorders http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Paclitaxel(Taxol).html of mucous membrane, hemorrhoids and in derangement of liver. 7 Phenolics, particularly hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids were identified as major components of W. fruticosa flowers. In view of these the present work was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of W. fruticosa against NDEA induced hepatocellular carcinoma in experimental rats and in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cell lines. NDEA, Silymarin, anti-mouse IgG horseradish peroxidase,
streptavidin horseradish peroxidase conjugate, diaminobenzidine, Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethane-sulphonic STK38 acid (HEPES) were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA. VEGF antibody from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA. Alpha feto-protein (AFP) assay kit was purchased from Creative diagnostics, USA. Assay kits for serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin were purchased from Agappe Diagnostics, India. 5-flourouracil (5-FU) was purchased from Biochem Pharmaceutical Industries, Mumbai, India. RPMI Medium and antibiotic-antimycotic were purchased from Gibco, Grand Island, N.Y, USA. Cell Proliferation Assay kit [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT)] was purchased from HiMedia, India. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was obtained from Merck, Mumbai, India. All other chemicals were of analytical grade.