, 2011 and PEN, 2013). Completed syntheses of the PEN data have not yet been published, but preliminary analyses provide results that are consistent with those of earlier NTFP studies (Table 1). There have been many studies investigating ancient forest management practices for indigenous food plants in parts of Latin America (e.g., Levis et al., 2012 and Peters, 2000) and Southeast Asia (e.g., Michon, 2005 and Wiersum, 1997), but relatively few in Africa Rigosertib nmr (although see, e.g., Leakey et al., 2004 and Maranz
and Wiesman, 2003). Ancient harvesting, managed regeneration and cultivation have, for example, led to genetic changes in many Amazonian fruit trees and palms (Clement, 1989). These include abiu (Pouteria caimito), Amazon tree grape (Pourouma cecropiifolia), araza (Eugenia stipitata), biriba (Rollinia mucosa), peach
palm (Bactris Etoposide order gasipaes) and sapota (Quararibea cordata). In Africa, rarer reports of changes in the characteristics of fruits attributed to ancient domestications include bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu) and safou (Dacryodes edulis) ( Leakey et al., 2004). Again, areca (Areca catechu), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and date (Phoenix dactylifera) are all palms for which changes in fruit size, in the proportion of useable product, and in the ability to be propagated, are attributed to long-past Parvulin human selections ( Clement, 1992), while an expanding list of global studies on ancient domestications includes many more food trees ( Clement, 2004). In perhaps the best studied case, in Amazonia, Amerindian populations declined after European colonial contact, which resulted in the erosion of the rich tree crop genetic heritage they had established (Clement, 1999). The effects of pre-Columbian forest management remain, however, including high density aggregations of useful trees close to ancient anthropogenic ‘dark earth’ soils (Clement and Junqueira, 2010) and in interfluvial regions (Levis et al., 2012), with Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) being
the most famous example ( Shepard and Ramirez, 2011). A review of molecular genetic studies ( Clement et al., 2010) suggested that current centres of genetic diversity in fruit and nut trees are generally located in the centre of the Amazon Basin along the major white water rivers where large pre-Colombian human populations developed, while the periphery of the basin has had an important role in domestication origins. This suggests that subtle differences in the focus of management programmes for conservation and genetic improvement may be required in different geographic regions of the Amazon, and indicates the importance of germplasm exchange and dispersal during ancient domestication processes.