7%) when combined

with other immunosuppressives (p=1 0)

7%) when combined

with other immunosuppressives (p=1.0). With azathioprine, dosages of systemic immunosuppression and steroids could be reduced by >= 50% (n=12) or topical steroids reduced to <= 2 drops/eye/day in six patients. In three patients (7.3%), azathioprine was discontinued because of nausea and stomach pain.\n\nConclusions Azathioprine may be reconsidered in the stepladder approach for the treatment Wnt inhibitor of JIA-associated uveitis. The addition of azathioprine may also be beneficial for patients not responding properly to methotrexate.”
“The current study examined the role of PLD2 in the maintenance of mast cell structure. Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce choline and phosphatidic acid (PA). PLD has two isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, which vary in expression and localization depending on the cell type. The mast cell line RBL-2H3 was transfected to overexpress catalytically active (PLD2CA) and inactive (PLD2CI) forms of PLD2. The results of this study show that PLD2CI cells have a distinct star-shaped morphology, whereas PLD2CA and RBL-2H3 cells are spindle shaped. In PLD2CI cells, the Golgi complex was also disorganized

with dilated cisternae, and more Golgi-associated vesicles were present as compared with the PLD2CA and RBL-2H3 cells. Treatment with exogenous PA led to the restoration of the wild-type Golgi complex phenotype in PLD2CI cells. Conversely, treatment Ruboxistaurin cost of RBL-2H3 and PLD2CA cells with 1% 1-Butanol led to a disruption of the Golgi complex. The distribution of acidic compartments, selleck chemicals llc including secretory granules and lysosomes, was also modified in PLD2CI cells, where they concentrated

in the perinuclear region. These results suggest that the PA produced by PLD2 plays an important role in regulating cell morphology in mast cells. (J Histochem Cytochem 60:386-396, 2012)”
“Objective: To describe and interpret the frequently observed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) finding of a marked hyporeflective wedge-shaped structure at the boundaries of the areas of atrophy.\n\nDesign: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study.\n\nParticipants: Consecutive patients (n = 71) 50 years of age and older with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were examined between January 2010 and June 2011.\n\nMethods: Patients were evaluated with the use of imaging techniques that included 35 fundus photography, infrared, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and SD-OCT. Visualization of the fundus with FAF was done simultaneously with OCT. Two acquisition protocols were followed: a macular cube for coverage (19 horizontal B-scans centered on the fovea) and high-resolution horizontal B-scan for qualitative foveal detail.\n\nMain Outcomes Measures: Estimation of the prevalence of a hyporeflective wedge-shaped band among patients with GA.

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