Consistent with our results, both of these studies confirmed the high case fatality of IPD due to serotype 3 and 19F. However, many other studies which analyzed death due to individual serotypes were done before the introduction selleck chemicals of PCV7 making a comparison with our study challenging  and . As for our setting, considering that the serotypes 3, 19A
and 19F are associated with the highest case fatality, the PCV13 vaccination might be indeed of advantage for adults at increased risk for IPD in Switzerland as those serotypes are included in PCV13. However it can also be expected that the introduction of PCV13 within infants will affect the epidemiology of pneumococcal serotypes within adults which has already been noted within other countries but not yet Switzerland. Our study has several limitations. By including only serotypes with an overall proportion of ≥1% (with the exception of serotype 6C), some serotypes see more were neglected which have also significantly risen but have just not yet reached large enough numbers. In addition, data about case fatality may be incomplete as the physicians have to report IPD to the FOPH within one week after IPD confirmation but some IPD patients may die after reporting. No patient follow up took place. In general, no validation of the
quality of data was performed for this study. Therefore, variation in the definition criteria to report e.g., a chronic lung disease, diabetes or nicotine abuse could have biased our results. A random misclassification would have produced an underestimation of a true association while selective misclassification could have induced a bias in both directions. Finally, the multivariable logistic regression analyses we performed allow to adjust for possible confounding by age, sex and comorbidities of the association
of serotype/serogroup with the analyzed outcomes, but are not capturing the more complex biological interactions between host and bacterial factors in shaping the likelihood of the analyzed outcomes. However, our results are comparable with similar studies from different settings , ,  and  In conclusion, this is a very detailed population based IPD surveillance study Phosphoprotein phosphatase in adults. It documents that IPD case fatality, age (≥65 years), type of manifestation (pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia without focus), number (≥1) and type of comorbidities (immunosuppression) are significantly and independently associated with serotype. It furthermore identifies the single serotypes driving these observations (e.g., 3, 19A and 19F for case fatality). The results may therefore help as an epidemiological basis for future vaccination recommendations to prevent IPD in distinct adult groups at risk in Switzerland. We thank Dr. Andrea Endimiani for his critical reading of the manuscript and Chantal Studer for her help with the serotyping.