e multiplexing, leads to competition between multiple targets fo

e. multiplexing, leads to competition between multiple targets for a finite number of reagents. Representing a welcomed side effect, this further enhances assay discrimination (see above). Co-amplification of an endogenous control adds another level to assay robustness and LB-100 solubility dmso represents an improvement compared to the ITS1-based TaqMan minor-groove binder qPCR assay for A. astaci-detection reported recently [51]. Coextraction of an homologous (competitive) internal positive control (IPC) with the clinical samples and coamplification in the qPCR or qPCR/MCA assays with the same primers used for the target DNA ensures accurate control

of the entire molecular assay and represents the state of the art for internal controls. It was shown that the addition of an IPC at levels Alisertib resulting in 100 copies per PCR did not affect the amplification of the target sequence [52, 53]. A competitive IPC compatible with the qPCR/MCA and TaqMan qPCR assays developed in this work is presented as Additional file 7. Another level of diagnostic uncertainty in the assay developed for A. astaci detection [51] is added by the use of a synthetic amplicon mimicking one of the closest relatives, A. frigidophilus. This approach supposes the intragenomic homogeneity of the ITS regions which has already been rebutted in many organisms [54,

55]. The addition of a minor-groove binder to a TaqMan probe in the assay reported by BYL719 Vralstad et al. allows to use shorter probes. However, probe cost increases by about 2.5-fold compared to our conventional TaqMan qPCR designed for quantitative detection. It also elevates the chance of detection

failure when varying genotypes are present. Generally, the avoidance of false negatives represents a major challenge in molecular diagnostics. Particularly, in TaqMan qPCR assays the possibility of false-negative testing poses a substantial problem because mutations within the probe-binding site can prevent annealing of the probe and subsequent detection [56, 57]. For example, TaqMan qPCR failed to detect any target with more than two mutations at the probe-binding site in contrast to a dye-based assay [56]. The dilemma of false-negative Clomifene detection due to probe-binding site variation can be overcome, for example, by combining a DNA probe with a fluorescent, double-stranded DNA-binding dye for specific nucleic acid quantification by probe-based qPCR and MCA [58]. In this case the dye would report a detection failure if the probe-binding site of a clinical specimen is mutated. However, “”compensation”" for mutations in the probe-binding site is no longer an issue if only two instead of three regions of conserved sequence are required for assay design as in the dye-based qPCR/MCA developed in this work. If very limited prior target sequence information exists from a population of interest like in our case, a dye-based detection approach represents a favourable strategy for species confirmation.

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