Following the warm-up period, subjects were directed to gradually

Following the warm-up period, subjects were directed to gradually increase the pace

of their pedalling over several check details seconds until they reached a maximal pace of unloaded sprinting. At this point, with a verbal cadence, external resistance was applied thereby initiating a 10-second period of sprint testing and data collection. Verbal encouragement was provided by the investigators to continue sprinting at maximal pace throughout the 10-second bout. Subjects were directed to continue pedalling at a slower controlled pace during the 1-minute active recovery periods. With five seconds remaining in the recovery period, subjects were again directed to gradually increase their pedalling to a sprinting pace for the second sprint. This procedure was continued for a total of five 10-second sprint PI3K Inhibitor Library screening bouts. Anaerobic power output of the sprints was determined using the SMI OptoSensor 2000 (Sports Medicine Industries, Inc., St. Cloud, Minn). Values of power output determined included peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) which in this case were the average values of power output during the first five seconds and total ten second period, respectively. The third power output measure

was a value of power decrement (DEC) in which the difference in power output between the first and second five second periods are expressed as a percentage of the first. Blood lactate levels were assessed using the Accutrend® Lactate analyzer (Sports Resource Group, Inc., Pleasantville, NY). The analyzer was calibrated using the standard control solutions prior to each testing session. Lactate values were determined at rest and post-exercise at minutes four and fourteen. Heart rate was measured using BCKDHB a Polar HR monitor system with values assessed at rest, during the final 5 seconds of each sprint as well as four and fourteen minutes following completion of the fifth sprint. Thigh girth was assessed using a Gulick tape with circumferential measurements taken 15 mm superior to the patella. Thigh girth was

measured at rest and four minutes following completion of the final sprint interval. Statistics Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine whether there were statistically significant differences between conditions (GPLC, PL) and across time. In the cases where significant main effects of condition or condition Ă— time interactions were detected, single degree of freedom contrasts were used to determine condition effects at each bout order without learn more adjustment of the acceptable level of significance. Net lactate accumulation relative to the power output of the sprints was calculated as the difference between the lactate measures at rest and those at 14 min divided by the average of the five MP values. Relative total power decrement was calculated for PP and MP as the relative difference between the first and last bout of each test condition.

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