Furthermore, we discuss how their discovery provides a rationale

Furthermore, we discuss how their discovery provides a rationale as to why accumulation of self-DNA mediates IFN-dependent autoimmunity.”
“There is considerable need for

bringing effective therapies for spinal cord injury Selleck BI 10773 (SCI) to the clinic. Excellent medical and surgical management has mitigated poor prognoses after SCI; however, few advances have been made to return lost function. Bioengineering approaches have shown great promise in preclinical rodent models, yet there remains a large translational gap to carry these forward in human trials. Herein, we provide a framework of human clinical trials, an overview of past trials for SCI, as well as bioengineered approaches that include: directly applied pharmacologics, cellular transplantation, biomaterials and functional neurorehabilitation. Success of novel therapies will require the correct application of comprehensive preclinical studies with well-designed and expertly conducted human clinical trials. While biologics and bioengineered strategies are widely considered to represent the high potential

benefits for those who have sustained a spinal injury, few such therapies have been thoroughly tested with appreciable efficacy for use in human SCI. With these considerations, we propose that bioengineered strategies are poised to enter clinical trials. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The selleck kinase inhibitor objective of this study was to establish the effect of aging on the development of anhedonia, a core feature of depression. Young and old male Wistar rats (of around 3-5 and 12-15 months, respectively) were exposed to a chronic variable stress (CVS) schedule for 3 weeks. CVS produced anhedonia, indicated by a reduction in the intake of a sucrose solution (1%). Oxymatrine in 8 out of 23 (35%) young rats and in 19 out of 26

(73%) old rats, implying that old animals are more susceptible to stress and develop anhedonia more readily than young animals. Young and old anhedonic rats showed a similar temporal course in the reduction of sucrose consumption, reaching the anhedonic state after 2 weeks of CVS exposure. Compared with young animals, old rats had lower basal serum testosterone and estradiol levels. The systemic levels of corticosterone did not vary between both age groups. No significant pathological condition was detected in old animals. It is suggested that the higher susceptibility to develop anhedonia in male rats could be associated to neuroendocrine changes consequent to aging. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Viruses commonly utilize the cellular trafficking machinery of polarized cells to effect viral export. Hepatocytes are polarized in vivo, but most in vitro hepatocyte models are either nonpolarized or have morphology unsuitable for the study of viral export.

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