In general, iterative methods would be necessary [20] and faster

In general, iterative methods would be necessary [20] and faster methods [40] have been developed to speed up the reconstruction process. Only a single transverse slice was imaged in the phantom, which was unaffected by eddy-current components that vary in the z-direction. However, it is expected that correction would work well for all orientations since the eddy-current phases were measured in three dimensions on a sphere. With the NMR probes located at a fixed radius on a sphere, the volume over which the correction can be performed can be extended

outside the radius of the field camera unless NVP-BKM120 solubility dmso there are spatial non-linearities in the gradients. The non-uniformity of the field produced by gradient coils was not taken into account for the determination of the probe locations. Gradients were assumed to be linear within the 20 cm diameter of the field camera. Oscillations were seen in some phase coefficients, particularly the y gradient, which could be due to mechanical resonances [34] and [41] CYC202 manufacturer or possibly related to the EPI

readout [20]. Mechanical vibrations could be the cause of the residual signal variation between different diffusion-encoding directions seen in Fig. 4. Another possible cause for this signal variation could be the eddy currents from the first diffusion lobe affecting the 180° refocusing pulse. Incomplete refocusing can result in non-linear effects across the image, which would be different for each diffusion-encoding direction. Correcting for incomplete refocusing would require measurement of eddy-current phases during the refocusing pulse, as well as subsequent correction of unwanted phase contributions in the slice-refocusing gradients for every diffusion-encoding PAK6 direction. The addition of parallel

imaging can be used to reduce the readout train length and hence the level of distortions. However, in this study, the temporal eddy-current phases showed accumulation early in the readout, suggesting that eddy-current correction may offer improvements even for the short readouts enabled by parallel imaging. Reducing the FOV by the use of orthogonal excitation and refocusing pulses is an alternative approach for reducing distortion levels. Similar distortion levels can be maintained, for example, by using a parallel-imaging reduction factor of two with a doubled FOV and the same readout length. Although parallel imaging enables larger FOVs without increasing the level of distortions, the reduced-FOV method (by orthogonal excitation pulses) remains useful for imaging smaller FOVs where parallel imaging can be less effective due to the lack of coil-sensitivity variation over these smaller FOVs. In this study, the reduced-FOV method was used to effectively minimize the readout length, and hence, the level of distortions before eddy-current correction.

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