LES phages infect a narrow host range in a type IV pilus-dependant manner From a well-characterised panel of 32 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates, 6 were susceptible to LES phage infection. Of 25 environmental isolates, representing 17 different Pseudomonas species, only the P. aeruginosa strain was susceptible. In addition, PA14 was resistant to infection by LESφ2 and LESφ3, but susceptible to LESφ4. Plaques on PA14 appeared less turbid than those on PAO1 lawns. The host ranges of each LES phage were not identical and no correlation was found between bacterial clone-type
 and susceptibility (data not shown). In addition, other common Gram-negative CF learn more pathogens OSI-027 nmr Burkholderia cenocepacia and B. multivorans strains were resistant to infection by all three LES phages (Table 2). Table 2 Susceptibility of a panel of Pseudomonas isolates to LES phages 2, 3 and 4 Isolate source (#) φ2 φ3 φ4 Reference
strains (2) 50% (1/2) 50% (1/2) 100% (2/2) Keratitis patient (12) 8.3% (1/12) 0% (0/12) 33.3% (4/12) Non-LES child (8) 12.5% (1/8) 0% (0/8) 12.5% (1/8) Non-LES adult (6) 16.7% (1/6) 0% (0/6) 0% (0/6) Anomalous LES (6) 0% (0/6) 0% (0/6) 0% (0/6) Environmental (25) 0% (0/25) 4% (1/25) 0% (0/25) Percentage of LES phage-sensitive strains as determined by plaque assay. Actual numbers tested are shown in parentheses. A non-piliated PAO1 mutant (pilA – ) was resistant to infection by all 3 phages,
suggesting that LESφ2, 3 and 4 all require type IV pili for infection. The hyper-piliated mutant (pilT – ) was also resistant to the LES phages, whilst an alternative hyper-piliated mutant (pilU -) remained fully susceptible. Discussion Differential induction among co-infecting prophages Induction experiments demonstrated that LESφ2 virions were produced from LESB58 in greater numbers than the other phages. These data suggest that LESφ2 replication is more efficient than the other phages and could out number and therefore out compete the other, co-infecting LES phages during the lytic cycle. Potentially supporting this hypothesis, we detected an extra copy of this phage in the LESφ2 lysogen genome. Southern analysis suggests the presence of either a pseudo-lysogenic plasmid form , or a highly active replicative form Sitaxentan of LESφ2 during spontaneous phage production. The implications of within-host competition between co-infecting prophages has been little studied, however Refardt et al. observed hierarchical competition between multiple prophages in E. coli, which Cilengitide ic50 suggested that the sensitivity of the lytic switch can determine dominance of one prophage over another in a polylysogen. Carriage of phages that are very prone to activation of the lytic lifecycle may represent a significant cost to their host cells, and thus could be selected against in natural populations.