Mean vertical velocities calculated from high-resolution dive dat

Mean vertical velocities calculated from high-resolution dive data (62 dives > 150 m) from three individuals suggested that mantas may use gliding behavior during travel and that this behavior may prove more efficient than continuous horizontal swimming. The behaviors in this study indicate manta rays provide a previously unknown link between the epi- and mesopelagic layers of an extremely oligotrophic marine environment and

click here provide evidence of a third marine species that utilizes gliding to maximize movement efficiency.”
“Background and objective. – Only a few studies have examined the putative association between substance use and bullying others, and to our knowledge none of the previous studies have investigated substance abuse among victims or those who are both bullies and victims. The aim of our study was to AZD8055 supplier investigate substance use among all of these three bullying subgroups and to examine the putative association between substance use and bullying behaviour.\n\nMethods. – The study sample consisted of 508 Finnish adolescents (age 12-17) admitted to psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. We used the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present

and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) to obtain DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, information about bullying behaviour and substance abuse of the adolescents. selleck inhibitor The level of nicotine dependence (ND) was assessed by using the modified Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ).\n\nResults. – Our study showed

that both among boys and girls, regular daily smoking and alcohol use among boys were statistically significantly associated with bullying behaviour. Further, among girls, but not among boys, there was also an association between bullying behaviour and more severe substance use, such as ND, use of cannabis and hard drugs.\n\nConclusion. – Since an association between bullying and severe substance use was found in this study, our novel finding needs replication in adolescent general population samples. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“According to the concept of pollination syndromes, floral traits reflect specialisation to a particular pollinator or set of pollinators. However, the reproductive biology of endemic, and often specialised, plants may require increased attention as climate change accelerates worldwide. Species of Roscoea endemic to the Himalayan region have striking orchid-like flowers with long corolla tubes, suggesting pollination by long-tongued insects. Until now, the reproductive biology of species of Roscoea has been poorly documented. We investigated the floral biology, breeding system and pollination ecology of R. cautleoides and R.

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