To determine the contribution of MFs on CCA biology, we performed

To determine the contribution of MFs on CCA biology, we performed cotransplantation experiments of CCA cells (i.e., Mz-ChA-1 cells) with primary MFs isolated from human liver (HLMFs)[24] in a subcutaneous (SC) xenograft model into nude mice. HLMFs in primary culture were morphologically activated

and expressed α-SMA and were negative for CD31 and HepPar1[24] (Supporting Fig. 1A,B). Mz-ChA-1 cells overexpressed EGFR, as compared to nonmalignant Romidepsin cost biliary epithelial cells (Supporting Fig. 1C). CCA cells were injected alone or in combination with HLMFs. Eight days postinjection, only mice inoculated with CCA cells and HLMFs presented palpable tumors. HLMFs boosted CCA tumor growth at any time post–cell injection with an average 4-fold increase (Fig. 1A, gray versus white bars) and an 8-fold increase in tumor weight at time of sacrifice (48 days postinjection; Fig. 1B, gray versus white bars). We also observed that the presence of HLMFs increased tumor take rate (Fig. 1C). Tumors developed in xenografted mice were histologically similar to human CCA, because they showed a prominent stromal compartment

attested by α-SMA staining. EGFR staining was exclusively detected in CCA cells (Fig. 1D). We next examined whether EGFR played a role in the enhancing effect of HLMFs on CCA growth by treating mice with gefitinib, a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity (Fig. 1A,B,E). From 8 days of treatment with gefitinib and until the end of the experiment (20 days of treatment), a significant growth reduction was observed in coinjected tumors, compared to vehicle-treated mice (Fig. 1A, black versus gray bars). Gefitinib decreased coinjected tumor weight with an average of 4-fold (Fig. 1B, black L-NAME HCl versus gray bars). Representative images of three tumors from each group are shown in Fig. 1E. EGFR activation, attested by its phosphorylation level status on tyrosine 1173, was detected in coinjected tumors, but not in CCA cell tumors. Gefitinib treatment abolished EGFR phosphorylation in coinjected tumors (Fig. 1F). Tumor glucose metabolism, which reflects cell viability, was examined by monitoring 18FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) uptake with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. A good correlation (R = 0.95) was observed between tumor volume estimated with a caliper and PET imaging (data not shown). A significant increase of 18FDG uptake (+40%), reflected by the mean of SUV (standard uptake value), was observed in coinjected tumors, as compared with CCA cell tumors (Fig.

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