2010a, b). Berlese (1900) introduced the earliest large-scale taxonomic study of Diatrypaceae, providing excellent illustrations for many species. Rappaz (1987) revised the family examining thoroughly original descriptions and types
around the world. To date, his work provides the most comprehensive treatment on the taxonomy of octosporous Diatrypaceae. In North America, Ellis and Everharts (1892) proposed descriptions for numerous Diatrypaceae, including polysporous genera. Later, Tiffany and Gilman (1965), and Glawe and Rogers (1984), described Diatrypaceae from Iowa and from the Pacific Northwest, respectively. Lately, Vasilyeva and Stephenson (2004, 2005, 2006, 2009) described several species from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the eastern US, Arkansas and Texas. Additional CB-839 order studies have investigated the diversity of Diatrypaceae in Argentina, describing new species and new AR-13324 concentration records (Romero and Carmarán
2003; Carmarán et al. 2009). The current generic delineation and classification of Diatrypaceae as proposed by Rappaz (1987) is based primarily on characters of the teleomorphic states, including stroma morphology and organization of perithecia. However, much overlap of these taxonomic features exists among the current diatrypaceous genera. For example, the concept of Diatrype as delimited by Rappaz (1987) has, in some instances, no clear separation from either Eutypa or Eutypella (Vasilyeva ifenprodil and Stephenson 2004). Overall, the taxonomy of the Diatrypaceae is outdated making the identification of these fungi particularly difficult. Published diagnoses for these species are often vague and incomplete, while most original descriptions as well as types are largely inaccessible or lost. The current classification of diatrypaceous genera
remains provisional and there is an urgent need to revise the classification of the family and test the significance of generic concepts using molecular phylogeny. Preliminary attempts at phylogenetic classification using molecular data as well as morphological characters remained inconclusive regarding the evolutionary relationships of these fungi (Acero et al. 2004; Carmarán et al. 2006; Trouillas et al. 2010a, b). In Australia, little work has been conducted to investigate the diversity and taxonomy of diatrypaceous fungi. Most studies have focused on the apricot and grapevine pathogen E. lata, which is widespread across South Australian (SA) vineyards (Carter 1991; Highet and Wicks 1998; Lardner et al. 2005; Sosnowski et al. 2007). However, a number of additional species were documented more signaling pathway recently. In 2004, Mostert et al. (2004) accounted for the occurrence of C.