“Background and aims: After subcutaneous injection insulin glargine is rapidly metabolized to M1 and M2. In vitro, both M1 and M2 have metabolic effects and bind to IGF-1R similarly to human insulin, whereas glargine exhibits a higher affinity for the IGF-1R and greater mitogenetic effects. The present study was specifically designed to
establish the doseeresponse metabolism of glargine over 24 h following s. c. injection in T2DM subjects on long-term use of glargine. Methods and results: Ten subjects ATM/ATR inhibitor clinical trial with T2DM were studied during 24 h after s. c. injection of 0.4 (therapeutic) and 0.8 (high dose) U/kg of glargine on two separate occasions during euglycaemic clamps (cross-over design). Glargine, M1 and M2 over 24 h period were determined in appropriately processed plasma samples by a specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Plasma M1 concentration (AUC0e24 h) was detected in all subjects and increased by
increasing the glargine dose from therapeutic to high dose (p = 0.008). Glargine was detectable in 6 (therapeutic dose) and 9 (high dose) out of the 10 subjects and also increased by increasing the dose (p = 0.031). However, glargine concentration (AUC0-24 h e high dose) represented at most only 9.7% (4.6-15%) of the total amount of insulin measured in the blood. M2 was not detected at all. Conclusion: In T2DM people on long-term use of insulin glargine, even with higher doses (0.8 U/ kg), glargine is nearly totally metabolized to the active SNS-032 order metabolite M1. Glargine is often detectable in plasma, but its concentration remains well below that needed in vitro to potentiate IGF-1R binding and mitogenesis. (C) 2014 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“The RUNX1/AML1 gene is the most frequent target for chromosomal translocation, and often identified as a site for reciprocal rearrangement of chromosomes 8 and 21 in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia.
Virtually all chromosome translocations in leukemia show no consistent homologous sequences at the breakpoint regions. However, specific chromatin elements (DNase I and topoisomerase II cleavage) have been found at the breakpoints of some genes suggesting that structural motifs are determinant for the double strand DNA-breaks. We analyzed the chromatin Ubiquitin inhibitor organization at intron S of the RUNX1 gene where all the sequenced breakpoints involved in t(8:21) have been mapped. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we show that chromatin organization at intron 5 of the RUNX1 gene is different in HL-60 and HeLa cells. Two distinct features mark the intron 5 in cells expressing RUNX1: a complete lack or significantly reduced levels of Histone H1 and enrichment of hyperacetylated histone H3. Strikingly, induction of DNA damage resulted in forma-cion of t(8:2 1) in HL-60 but not in HeLa cells.