e , zinc oxide (ZnO) [6]), and carbon-based materials (i e , grap

e., zinc oxide (ZnO) [6]), and carbon-based materials (i.e., graphene [7], carbon nanotube (CNT) [8]) on Si platform is highly required. The co-integration of these materials enables the present ultra-large-scale integrated check details circuits (ULSIs) to be facilitated not only with ultra-high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors and novel transistors

[9] but also with various kinds of functional devices, such as optical devices [10], photodetectors [11], solar batteries [12], and sensors [13, 14]. Such intelligent system-on-chip (i-SoC) on Si is considered as a promising and practical direction. ZnO is a promising candidate for the fabrication of several selleck screening library kinds of devices due to its unique properties such as wide bandgap and large exciton energy. In order to fabricate ZnO-based

devices on Si substrate, it is necessary to electronically isolate both materials using an insulator such as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Therefore, a breakthrough on the click here growth technology is strongly required to realize a high-quality ZnO-on-insulator structure with excellent crystallinity since the insulator is amorphous and the lattice mismatch is relatively large. There are several reports on the growth of ZnO nanostructures on insulators such as SiO2 [15, 16], but the densities of the grown ZnO nanostructures were very low. Therefore, the ZnO seed layer is commonly used as the nucleation site to enable the subsequent growth of ZnO nanostructures on insulators [17–20]. Graphene is a two-dimensional hexagonal network of carbon atoms which is formed by making strong triangular Histamine H2 receptor σ-bonds of the sp2

hybridized orbitals. Since the bonding structure of graphene is similar to the C plane of the hexagonal crystalline structure of ZnO, it seems to be feasible for graphene to serve as an excellent template layer for the growth of high-density ZnO nanostructures on the insulator. In addition, since graphene is an excellent conductor and transparent material, the hybrid structure of a ZnO nanostructure and graphene shall lead to several device applications not only on Si substrate but also on other insulating substrates such as glass and flexible plastic. For examples, such hybrid structure can be used for sensing devices [21], ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors [22], solar cells [23], hybrid electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) [24], etc. There are several potential methods to grow ZnO on graphene which can be categorized into vapor phase and liquid phase methods. Vapor phase method is likely to involve a high-temperature process and is also considered as a high-cost method [25]. Also, since the process requires oxygen (O2), the possibility of graphene to be oxidized or etched out during the growth is high since the oxidation of graphene is likely to occur at temperatures as low as 450°C [26, 27].

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