We report here for the first time the detection of ST7 in an amph

We report here for the first time the detection of ST7 in an amphibian. Previous reports on the occurrence of S. agalactiae in frogs mention non-haemolytic GBS strains [18, 37] but all ST7 isolates in our study and in previous studies of aquatic S. agalactiae were β-haemolytic. Thus, it is unlikely that infections described previously in frogs were due to

ST7. Like most ST7 isolates in our study, the frog isolate originated from Thailand, where this ST is common in farmed tilapia (Figure 1). S. agalactiae has been isolated from captive and wild dolphins [17, 38]. ST7 was cultured from a bottlenose dolphin SU5416 (Tursiops truncates) that died during the Kuwait Bay fish kill but no definitive link between bacterial isolation and death could be established [38]. Similarly, we describe the first case of ST399 in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin calf from Scotland Talazoparib order without definitive evidence of a causal association with the animal’s death, which was attributed to Lonafarnib order trauma and infanticide. ST399 is a rare SLV of ST12 and does not appear to be closely related to ST7 in eBURST analysis of the current MLST database (Figure 2). However, ST399 is a DLV of ST7 and alternative methods,

e.g. clustering of MLST data using the unweighted pair group method, suggest that ST399 should be classified as a member of CC7 [39]. Due to the low number of dolphin VAV2 isolates available, it is not possible to determine whether the isolation of two CC7 strains from temporally and geographically unrelated dolphins is coincidental

or reflective of a host predilection. Like ST7, ST399 may occur as a vaginal coloniser in healthy women [39]. Thus, its presence in sea water could result from microbial contamination by human effluent. S. agalactiae ST23 is associated with humans and seals but not with fish Streptococcus agalactiae has been detected in grey seals (Hallichoerus grypus) and in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazelles) but those descriptions predate the development of MLST [40, 41]. S. agalactiae was identified in 9 grey seals under the Scottish Strandings Scheme whereas examination of a larger number of common seals (Phoca vitulina) under the same Scheme failed to recover S. agalactiae, suggesting that among Scottish pinnipeds, S. agalactiae has a preference for grey seals. Complete molecular typing data was available for 6 isolates, which are included in the current study, whilst MLST data was available for the remaining 3 isolates. One of the grey seals had died of a systemic infectious process, whilst other animals with S. agalactiae died with signs of storm damage, hypothermia, starvation, trauma or lung emphysema, in agreement with previous studies [40, 41]. All seal isolates (n = 9) belonged to ST23. Within ST23, molecular serotypes Ia and III predominate [1, 14].

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