After LT, 65% of the patients were treated with lamivudine (LMV),

After LT, 65% of the patients were treated with lamivudine (LMV), 9% adefovir dipivoxil (ADV), 12% entecavir (ETV), 28% tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The majority of the patients (75%) were on tacrolimus based triple combination therapy (Tacrolimus+MMF+ Prednisone). HBV recurrence was occurred in 8 patients (2.7%).

HBV recurrent patients were older (p=0.005) and had longer post transplantation period (p= 0.031). Among them, 7 had HCC, 1 had HDV coinfection, and 2 had detectable serum HBVDNA levels prior to LT. Four patients were on LMV, 2 LMV+ADV, 1 ADV and 1 ETV. Overall, 44 patients died due to post-transplant complications or HCC recurrence and its progression. Two of them had HBV recurrence. The overall survival rate was 85%. No patients underwent re-transplantation because of HBV-induced graft failure. In conclusion, based on the result of the present study, a combination of NUC treatment Poziotinib in vivo and low dose HBIG is efficient in long-term prophylaxis of HBV recurrence after LT. Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Ramazan Idilman, Murat Akyildiz, Onur Keskin, Ali R788 cell line Tuzun, Tonguc U. Yilmaz, Necdet Guler, Onur

Yaprak, Gokhan Gungor, Yalcin Erdogan, Murat Dayangac, Deniz Balci, Kubilay Cinar, Acar Tuzuner, Selcuk Hazinedaroglu, Yaman Tokat, Sadik Ersoz, Abdulkadir Dokmeci Background and Aim The pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/R) therapy against hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) patients is difficult. Recently PEG-IFN/R plus protease inhibitor (teraprevir or sime-previr) therapy

Montelukast Sodium has been used and produced excellent results for non-transplanted patients with HCV. However there are limited data on treatment of HCV reinfection with PEG-IFN/R plus protease inhibitor in LDLT patients. Our aim of this study is to evaluate the prognosis-improving of patients who achieved Sustained viral response (SVR) by IFN therapy and present the possibility that PEG-IFN/R plus protease inhibitor therapy might contribute to prognosis-improving by their strong antiviral effects. Methods This study included eighty-six patients underwent HCV-related LDLT from Aug 2000 to Jan 2013 in Nagasaki university hospital. Thirty patients were treated with PEG-IFN/R therapy, four patients with PEG-IFN/R plus teraprevir therapy and eight with PEG-IFN/R plus simeprevir therapy. Other thirty-four patients didn’t receive IFN therapy. The prognosis of patients who had achieved SVR was compared with that of non-SVR to assess the prognosis-improving in the LDLT patients with SVR. Furthermore, the therapy effect of PEG-IFN/R with or without protease inhibitor was examined at 4 weeks and 12 weeks after treatment. Results Eight of thirty (26.6%) achieved SVR by PEG-IFN/R. Their mean duration of therapy for SVR was 747 days. Survival rate of patients who achieved SVR was higher than non-SVR significantly (p=0.

The SpyGlass probe was inserted into the catheter following succe

The SpyGlass probe was inserted into the catheter following successful cannulation, and cholangiopancreatoscopy was performed by a single operator. We retrospectively analyzed the successful visualization rate of this technique. Results:  Fifteen patients were included in this study. SpyGlass cholangiopancreatoscopy was technically successful in all patients. this website Successful visualization was obtained in nine patients (60%). The median SpyGlass procedure

time was 10 min. Cholangiopancreatoscopic diagnoses were as follows: bile duct carcinoma in three patients; intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma in two; and intraductal pancreatic stone, benign biliary stricture, gallbladder cholesterolosis, and gallbladder carcinoma in one each. There were no cases of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Conclusions:  While the low rate of successful visualization must be improved, single-operator cholangiopancreatoscopy using a SpyGlass probe through an ERCP catheter is a safe and effective procedure. “
“Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

can induce intestinal injury, the mechanisms are not fully understood, and treatment has yet to be established. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has recently gained attention for anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of hemin, an HO-1 inducer, on indomethacin-induced enteritis in mice. Enteritis was induced by single subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6 mice. Hemin (30 mg/kg) was administered Birinapant clinical trial by intraperitoneal administration 6 h before indomethacin administration. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: (i) sham + vehicle; (ii) sham + hemin; (iii) indomethacin + vehicle; or (iv) indomethacin + hemin. Enteritis was evaluated by measuring ulcerative lesions. Myeloperoxidase activity was measured as an index of neutrophil accumulation. The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, Grape seed extract monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant, were analyzed

by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The area of ulcerative lesions, myeloperoxidase activity, and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly increased in mice administrated with indomethacin compared with vehicle-treated sham mice. Development of intestinal lesions, increased levels of myeloperoxidase activities, and mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly suppressed in mice treated with hemin compared with vehicle-treated mice. Protective effects of hemin were reversed by co-administration of tin protoporphyrin, an HO-1 inhibitor. Induction of HO-1 by hemin inhibits indomethacin-induced intestinal injury through upregulation of HO-1.

miR-125b precursor was ordered from Ambion SUV39H1 3′ untranslat

miR-125b precursor was ordered from Ambion. SUV39H1 3′ untranslated region (UTR) sequences, containing wild-type (WT) or

mutated miR-125b-binding sites, were cloned into the dual-luciferase miRNA target expression vector, Z-IETD-FMK in vitro pmirGLO (Promega, Madison, WI). HCC cells (5 × 104) were seeded into each well of a 24-well plate the day before transfection. miR-125b precursor (15 ρmole) was first transfected into BEL7402 cells using X-tremeGene (Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Twenty-four hours later, 0.5 µg of pmirGLO, containing WT or mutated miR-125b-targeted SUV39H1 3′ UTR sequence, was transfected into BEL7402 cells using FuGENE 6 (Roche). Firefly and Renilla luciferase activity of transfected cells were determined 48 hours after transfection by using the Dual-Luciferase Assay Kit (Promega), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Renilla luciferase activity was used as the internal control for normalization. Three

independent experiments were performed. Epigenetics allows differential gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence and is controlled by various epigenetic modifiers. Recently, we analyzed the expression profile of a total of 90 epigenetic regulators in 38 paired human HCC samples.17 selleck products We found that the epigenetic regulators′ expression profile could clearly distinguished cancerous tissue from the adjacent non-tumorous

liver,17 suggesting that epigenetic alternation is common in HCC development. Interestingly, among the aberrantly expressed epigenetic modifiers, the prototype of SET-domain-containing histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 was one of the most significantly elevated in the primary HCC samples, relative to the non-tumorous liver and normal liver controls (P < 0.001; Fig. 1A). SUV39H1 expression level was also positively associated with proliferation second marker Ki67 expression (R = 0.693, P < 0.001; Fig. 1B). This finding suggested that deregulation of SUV39H1 may be implicated in human hepatocarcinogenesis and thus prompted us to further investigate the roles of SUV39H1 in human HCC. In this study, we first confirmed the up-regulation of SUV39H1 by performing qRT-PCR in an additional 67 paired HCCs and 7 normal liver samples. Combining the data from profiling and validation cohorts, up-regulation of SUV39H1 was frequently found in human primary HCC (59 of 105; 56.2%) (Fig. 1C). Importantly, up-regulation of SUV39H1 was significantly associated with an aggressive HCC pathological feature: the presence of venous invasion in patients’ livers (P = 0.017; Fig. 1D; Supporting Tables 1 and 2). These observations highlighted the clinical relevance of SUV39H1 in hepatocarcinogenesis, particularly in the aspect of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis.

PBMCs were resuspended in RPMI 1640 culture medium (Sigma-Aldrich

PBMCs were resuspended in RPMI 1640 culture medium (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) supplemented with 5% heat-inactivated human AB serum (MP Biomedicals, Eschwege, Germany), 2 mM L-glutamine (Sigma-Aldrich), and 1% penicillin/streptomycin solution (Sigma-Aldrich). CD3/CD28 Dynabeads (Life technologies, Oslo, Norway) were added to obtain a bead-to-cell ratio of 1:1. The cultures were incubated for 7 days at 37°C in 5% CO2.

Activated PBMCs were washed twice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), resuspended in 500 μL of Pierce® IP lysis LDE225 in vitro buffer (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL, USA), and homogenized using FastPrep®-24 (MP Biomedicals). Lysates were cleared by a 10-min centrifugation at 10 000 × g at 4°C. Protein concentration was 2.8 μg/μL by using the Protein Assay Dye Reagent Concentrate (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). Briefly, 200 μL of human sera diluted 1:10 in PBS with 0.02% Tween 20 were incubated with Dynabeads Protein G (Invitrogen Dynal AS, Oslo, Norway) for 1 h at room temperature. The beads were washed with PBS and incubated with 200 μL PBS containing 20 μg activated PBMC lysate for 1 h at room temperature. Beads were then washed with PBS, and retained proteins were eluted with 2 × SDS sample buffer (20% glycerol, 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),

125 mM tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12% 2-mercaptoethanol, 0.004% bromophenol blue). Proteins were Selleck NVP-BKM120 diglyceride separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The separated components were electroblotted onto an Immobilon-P polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA). Blot membranes were blocked in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blocking reagent for Can Get Signal (Toyobo, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The blots were washed with tris-buffered saline with Tween

20 and reacted with a 1:1000 dilution of antihuman PD-1 antibody (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) for 1 h at room temperature, washed and then reacted with HRP (Horseradish peroxidase)-conjugated antimouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) for 1 h. The blots were then developed by electrochemi-luminescence immunoassay (ECL) (GE Healthcare) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Titers of serum anti-PD-1 antibodies were measured by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Protein Detector ELISA Kit (Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). All serum samples were tested in duplicate. Briefly, 96-well U-bottom microtiter plates (Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Frickenhausen, Germany) were coated with 100 μL of 1 μg/mL recombinant PD-1 (Abnova, Taipei, Taiwan) in PBS at room temperature for 1 h. Unbound antigen was removed, nonspecific binding sites were blocked by incubation with 1% bovine-serum albumin (BSA) in PBS, and the wells were incubated with 100 μL of human sera diluted 1:20 in PBS with 1% of BSA for 1 h.

290,291 Seventy percent of patients improve their clinical and la

290,291 Seventy percent of patients improve their clinical and laboratory findings within 2 years, and survival is preserved.354,355,357 Histological remission is achieved in only 20%, and most patients remain on therapy and at risk for drug-related side effects and/or disease progression.354,355,357 The development of hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and/or variceal hemorrhage during therapy for treatment failure is an indication for liver transplantation.11,73 Protracted therapy that has improved the clinical, laboratory, and histological indices but not induced complete resolution constitutes an incomplete response (Table 8).282-285 Thirteen percent of

patients Pictilisib research buy fail to enter remission after 36 months of treatment, and they are classified as incomplete responders. In these instances, alternative

strategies must be considered. Long-term low dose corticosteroid therapy involves a gradual decrease in the prednisone dose by 2.5 mg per month until the lowest level (≤10 mg daily) is achieved, and the serum AST or ALT level remains stable.282-285,329 Long-term Galunisertib clinical trial azathioprine (2 mg/kg daily) can also be used to stabilize the serum AST and ALT levels in corticosteroid intolerant individuals who require continuous treatment.282-285,327 Drug toxicity justifies premature discontinuation or alteration of conventional therapy in 13% of patients (Table 8).277,282-285 In these instances, therapy with the tolerated agent (prednisone or azathioprine) can be maintained in adjusted dose to prevent

worsening in the clinical and laboratory features.282-285 The treatment endpoints for children are similar to those of adults. Almost all children demonstrate improvement in liver tests within the first 2-4 weeks of treatment with either prednisone or prednisone and azathioprine.35,36,279-281,283,305,358-361 Some 80%-90% achieve laboratory remission in 6-12 months. Cetuximab ic50 In most treatment protocols, high-dose prednisone (1-2 mg/kg daily) is administered for up to 2 weeks, at which time a gradual decrease in dose is undertaken to reach a maintenance level (usually 0.1-0.2 mg/kg daily or 5 mg daily) in 6-8 weeks.35,36,279-281,283,305,358-361 Clinical and laboratory parameters are usually sufficient to determine the adequacy of response. Flares in disease activity, as assessed by an increase in serum AST or ALT level, are treated with a temporary increase in corticosteroid dose. The goal of treatment in children is to have minimal or no serum AST or ALT abnormality on the lowest dose of medication possible.(35, 36, 279-281, 283, 305, 358-361) Long-term, low-dose therapy is anticipated and emotional, cosmetic, and growth-related side effects temper treatment in an individualized fashion.

[36, 37] The yield from brush cytology is variable,

[36, 37] The yield from brush cytology is variable, see more and positive diagnosis ranges from 44–80%.[36, 38] To date, there has been no prospective control study on the yield of tissue acquisition in HCCA. Pooled data from over 800 CCA patients reported sensitivity of 42%, specificity of 98%, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 98% among patients with confirmed cancer.[36] It has been reported that at least five brush passes, removal of the brush and catheter together, and inclusion of washings from the brush catheter may increase yield.[39] Intraductal fine-needle

aspiration (FNA) had a sensitivity of just 34%, with specificity of 100% and PPV of 100%.[36] Although intraductal biopsies have shown the highest GW-572016 yield for detection of malignancy, with a pooled sensitivity of 56%, specificity

of 97%, and PPV of 97%,[36, 39] intraductal biopsy in HCCA stricture is a cumbersome technique and may result in a lower diagnostic yield than the result reported in all CCAs. A “smash prep” protocol showed the overall sensitivity of 76% for all cancers with 100% specificity. The highest diagnostic yields for tissue sampling at Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were obtained by using a combination of two or three standard techniques at the same setting. Ponchon et al. found that combining brush cytology (35% sensitivity) and forceps biopsy (43% sensitivity) yielded a sensitivity of 86%.[40] The Indiana group reported a sensitivity of 73% in CCA Megestrol Acetate subset using triple samplings with brush cytology, FNA, and forceps biopsy. The addition of a 2nd or 3rd sampling modality consistently increased diagnostic yield.[41] Therefore, we recommend at least a combination of two techniques such as brushing and forceps biopsy for all suspicious strictures. 5. Carbohydrate

antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are moderately specific for CCA. The presence of cholestasis and cholangitis lower the specificity of serum CA 19-9 Level of agreement: a—63%, b—37%, c—0%, d—0%, e—0% Quality of evidence: II-2 Classification of recommendation: B CA 19-9 and CEA are the two markers best studied with respect to CCA, but their utility is limited by poor sensitivity in early stage malignancy, and marginally elevated levels (> 100U/mL) may be associated with benign conditions.[42-47] Many studies have looked at their diagnostic utility in the setting of both PSC-related CCA and non-PSC-related CCA.[42-47] By using the serum cutoff value of more than 180 U/mL in some large series,[42-49] the sensitivity was moderate at 53%–79% and the specificity was fair to excellent at 83%–98%. However, the specificity of CA 19-9 in diagnosing biliary malignancy is reduced by the presence of either cholangitis or cholestasis.

We aimed to determine correlations between

We aimed to determine correlations between selleck monoclonal humanized antibody inhibitor the CESI, clinical disease activity indices, and CRP in SBCD patients. A prospective study was conducted between October 2008 and February 2011 on 58 established SBCD patients and suspected patients who received a definitive SBCD diagnosis during study. Patients underwent

complete CE and were scored according to the CESI and Harvey–Bradshaw index (HBI). Statistical correlation among CESI, HBI, and CRP was assessed. Weak, but significant, correlations were found between CESI and HBI (r = 0.4, P < 0.01). The correlation between CESI and CRP was moderate (r = 0.58, P < 0.01). The median CRP value was significantly higher in patients with moderate to severe CESI compared with the mild group (22.60 ± 16.79 mg/L vs 11.88 ± 8.39 mg/L, P < 0.01). Changes between baseline and

follow-up CESI failed to correlate with the delta-HBI or delta-CRP (both, P > 0.05). In this cohort of SBCD patients, clinical disease activity index was not reliable predictors of mucosal inflammation. CRP, however, might be a useful inflammatory marker for evaluating the moderate to severe CE activity in SBCD patients. Furthermore, therapy-induced clinical and biological improvement was not associated with repair of SBCD mucosal lesions. “
“In 2009, a correlated set of polymorphisms in the region of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene Enzalutamide supplier were associated with clearance of genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients treated with pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirin. The same polymorphisms were subsequently associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in untreated patients. The link between IL28B genotype and HCV clearance may impact decisions regarding initiation of current therapy, the design and interpretation of clinical studies, the economics of treatment, and the process of regulatory approval for new anti-HCV therapeutic agents. (Hepatology 2011)

The current standard of care for chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is 24 or 48 weeks of therapy with pegylated interferon-alfa (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). Response to therapy is variable, and viral and host characteristics can influence whether patients achieve a sustained virological response (SVR), pheromone defined as having undetectable serum HCV RNA at 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. Viral genotype is a predictor of response: patients infected with genotype 1 virus who are treated for 48 weeks with PEG-IFN and RBV have a 40%-50% likelihood of having an SVR, whereas patients with genotype 2 or 3 virus have an SVR rate of 70%-80% after only 24 weeks of PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. Patient genetic ancestry is also a factor in treatment outcome. African American patients with chronic HCV have an almost 50% reduction in SVR rates with PEG-IFN and RBV compared with non-Hispanic patients of European ancestry, and the difference is not explained by socio-demographic characteristics or compliance to treatment.

The objective of our study is to define the pattern of GB wall th

The objective of our study is to define the pattern of GB wall thickening for classifying the diagnosis. Methods: Abdominal computed tomography images and pathologic results were obtained from 60 patients who underwent cholecystectomy due to diffuse gallbladder wall thickening were reviewed retrospectively. Enhancement patterns were divided BMN 673 price into 5 types. We compared CT findings with the pathologic results and categorized pathologic findings as inflammatory lesion and tumors. Tumors include adenomyoma, adenomyomatosis, and adenocarcinoma. Results: Enhancement was classified as one of the following five patterns. Type 1 pattern was a heterogeneously

enhancing one-layer gallbladder wall; type 2, strongly enhancing thick inner layer and weakly enhancing outer layer; type 3, borderline enhancement and thickness of the inner layer with small cystic spaces and non-enhancing outer layer; type 4, weakly enhancing thin inner layer and non-enhancing thin outer layer; type 5, weakly enhancing thin inner layer and non-enhancing thick outer layer. Type 1 and 3 showed tendency for tumorous condition but no statistical significance between gallbladder wall enhancement patterns and pathologic causes of diffuse gallbladder wall thickening was noted. selleck kinase inhibitor Type;inflammatory lesion;tumor: Type 1;0;3, Type 2;5;1, Type 3;0;2, Type 4;25;2, Type 5;22;0 Conclusion: Analyzing the enhancement

pattern of a diffuse gallbladder wall thickening on CT may helpful in distinguishing gallbladder tumor from benign inflammatory lesion. The study with more patients is needed to confirm this result. Key Word(s): 1. gallbladder; 2. wall thickening; 3. GB Glycogen branching enzyme wall; 4. enhancement Presenting Author: JIN HONG KIM Additional Authors: MIN JAE YANG, GIL HO LEE Corresponding Author: JIN HONG KIM Affiliations: Ajou University Hospital, Ajou University Hospital Objective: Endoscopic

large balloon dilation (EPLBD) using large-diameter balloons (12–20 mm) was introduced to facilitate the removal of large bile duct stones and minimize the need for endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy (EML). Limited data exist on the maximal balloon size that would minimize fatal adverse events associated with EPLBD. In the current study, we aimed to assess the safety profiles of EPLBD according to balloon size and to identify the proper maximal size of a large balloon for treating large bile duct stones. Methods: From March 2004 to July 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the ERCP database system at our center. There were 114 patients in the EPLBD with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EST) group and 165 patients in the EPLBD without EST group. In the EPLBD with EST group, there were 49 patients in the EPLBD with a larger balloon (>15 mm) group and 65 patients in the EPLBD with a smaller balloon (12–15 mm) group.

Physicians looking after patients with liver disease required onl

Physicians looking after patients with liver disease required only a limited knowledge

of pharmacology to manage their patients with liver disease. In the early 1980s, beta blockers were more widely used for prophylaxis against variceal bleeding, and vasopressin was increasingly used in the control of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid were subsequently introduced for dissolution of gallstones, but ursodeoxycholic acid is now mainly used for primary biliary cirrhosis. Technology for imaging of the liver was also limited, with gray scale ultrasound, poor quality nuclear scans, and invasive procedures such as spleno-porto-venograms being utilized to visualize the liver and its vasculature. Subsequently, agents were introduced for immunosuppression following liver transplantation, and there was an explosion of imaging technology including

ultrasound, Doppler sonography, computer Hydroxychloroquine cost tomography and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging. In the last decade several agents have been introduced for treatment of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and, more recently, for palliative therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. The current unmet need is finding a simple modality for educating the hepatologist in the proper use of newer drugs, devices or techniques. Beginning in this issue of HEPATOLOGY, we have introduced a new section termed “Diagnostic and Therapeutic Advances in Hepatology”. This

section will feature on an intermittent basis and deal mainly with agents that have been recently EPZ-6438 order added to the therapeutic and diagnostic armamentarium of the hepatologist. The section will typically be authored by an expert in the field who has had only limited ties with the particular C1GALT1 drug or device company. The format to be followed will be standardized, very practical, and patient-based. For new drugs, the discussant will cover the pharmacology of the drug, including its mechanism of action, the adverse effect profile and, most important of all, how the drug is to be used, including monitoring and dose adjustments. Since it is anticipated that there will be not only several new drugs introduced for treatment of liver disease in the future, but also newer devices (artificial and bioartificial liver support systems), as well as newer imaging modalities (such as ultrasound and MR Elastography), new devices will also be discussed. We are confident that this section will be a step in the right direction in providing the practicing hepatologist with expert and unbiased advice regarding newer advances in the field. “
“This chapter summarizes the clinical impact of recurrent hepatitis C, as well as the risk factors for disease severity, the differential diagnosis of abnormal liver tests post-liver transplant in hepatitis C patients, and the histological hallmarks of disease recurrence.

Male(s) from an Indian Ocean breeding group could be exposed to n

Male(s) from an Indian Ocean breeding group could be exposed to novel song when they geographically overlap, and acoustically interact, with males from a different ocean basin. Novel song could induce rapid temporal changes as new song content is incorporated, thereby minimizing song similarities between that breeding group and other selleck inhibitor Indian Ocean breeding groups that were not exposed to the novel song. “
“Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) of the western

Arctic stock winter in ice-covered continental shelf regions of the Bering Sea, where pot fisheries for crabs (Paralithodes and Chionoecetes spp.) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) pose a risk of entanglement. In the winter of 2008–2009 and 2009–2010 the spatial distribution of 21 satellite tagged bowhead whales Selleck GW 572016 partially overlapped areas in which pot fisheries for cod and blue king crab (Paralithodes platypus) occurred. However, these fisheries ended before whales entered the

fishing areas, thus avoiding temporal overlap. A fishery for snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) typically runs from January to May and provides the greatest potential for bowhead whales to encounter active pot gear. Tagged whales did not enter the area of the snow crab fishery during this study and generally remained in areas with >90% sea ice concentration, which is too concentrated for crab boats to penetrate. Pack ice sometimes overruns active fishing areas, resulting in lost gear, which is the most likely source of entanglement. The western Arctic stock of bowhead whales was increasing as of 2004; as such, incidental mortality from commercial pot fisheries is probably negligible at this time. Regardless, entanglement may increase over time and should be monitored. “
“Phylogenetic placement of bottlenose dolphins from Zanzibar, East Africa and putative population differentiation between animals

found off southern and northern Zanzibar were examined using variation in mtDNA control region sequences. Samples (n= 45) from animals bycaught in fishing gear and skin biopsies collected during boat surveys were compared to published Thiamine-diphosphate kinase sequences (n= 173) of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, from southeast Australian waters, Chinese/Indonesian waters, and South African waters (which recently was proposed as a new species) and to published sequences of common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses indicated a close relationship between Zanzibar and South African haplotypes, which are differentiated from both Chinese/Indonesian and Australian T. aduncus haplotypes. Our results suggest that the dolphins found off Zanzibar should be classified as T. aduncus alongside the South African animals. Further, analyses of genetic differentiation showed significant separation between the T.