3(D)) Specifically, the developmental change in mineral particle

3(D)). Specifically, the developmental change in mineral particle angle with development is similar for both LB and IF. Starting from a lower degree of misalignment (~ 60°) at 1 week (compared to ~ 110–130° for wild type mice), the decrease of angle in both anatomical regions is similar (~ 85%). A subsequent slight increase is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Fig. 4 shows the values of ρ as a function of anatomical region Selleck LY294002 and disease condition for all developmental ages. In the wild-type animals ( Fig. 4A dotted line), the degree of orientation in the LB (bony ridge) increased significantly with age (p < 0.01). The most significant increment in the

degree of orientation (p < 0.01) was observed between 1 week and 4 weeks in wild-type mice scapulae ( Fig. 4B). After 4 weeks of age, the degree of orientation does not increase to the same extent. In contrast, at the IF, no statistically JQ1 chemical structure significant difference in degree of orientation with age was observed (p > 0.05). In Hpr mice ( Fig. 4A dash line), in contrast, the degree of mineral crystallite orientation in both regions increases significantly (IF and LB: p < 0.01) ( Fig. 4C).

Intra-sample t-tests show that the significant increase is from 1 to 7 weeks for both regions (p < 0.01). Therefore, the difference between the LB and the IF is lost. These results showed that, in wild-type mice scapulae, the degree of orientation of the mineral crystals is greater at sites where higher muscle forces are exerted. Methamphetamine From the histograms of degree of mineralisation (measured using micro-CT), the mean mineral concentration was plotted as a function of

age for LB (Fig. 5(A)) and IF (Fig. 5(B)), for both wild type and Hpr mice. The mean mineral concentration in wild type and Hpr mice was similar at 1 week for both the LB and the IF (Fig. 5(A)). The rate of increase in mineralisation with age was greater in wild type mice compared to Hpr mice (Fig. 5(B)) in the LB. However, in the flat infraspinous region, the rates of increase were similar for wild type and Hpr mice. The mean mineral concentration was lower at the IF compared to the LB in wild type mice at every age, and the difference became more significant (p < 0.05) with age. These variations across the scapula in wild-type mice show that increase in mineral content with age was greater at sites where higher muscle forces are exerted. From the foregoing, it is evident that our results demonstrate an association between muscular forces acting on the bone, and bone-matrix nanostructure with development in intramembranously ossified bones, and that a significant disruption of this correlation occurs under the conditions of hypomineralisation [21] and reduced muscular forces [22] observed in murine models of rickets. With scanning synchrotron SAXS [18], we were able to map microscale variations in bone nanostructure at different stages of tissue maturity.

b gambiense parasite

in patients’ blood Despite its uti

b. gambiense parasite

in patients’ blood. Despite its utility and its high specificity and sensitivity (95% and 87–98%, respectively), it is not considered a diagnostic gold standard [16]. Decreased accuracy of the CATT has been reported in some foci where particular strains of trypanosomes are present, as well as false positive results due to cross-reactions with antibodies to other parasites [38] and [39]. Serological screening is followed by parasitological examination of body fluids for the detection of trypanosomes. The different methods of parasite detection in blood, such as microhaematocrit centrifugation (mHCT) or mini-anion exchange centrifugation SB203580 purchase (mAECT), have been reviewed elsewhere [16]. However, parasitological tools are often not sensitive enough to detect parasites which may be present in patients’ body fluids in low numbers [28] and [29]. Furthermore, the lower parasitemia typical of T. b. gambiense, compared to T. b. rhodesiense, might be responsible for the missed

diagnosis of 20–30% of T. b. gambiense cases [40]. These limitations highlight the need for new tools to improve the screening and diagnosis of sleeping sickness. In order to improve efficacy in detecting HAT seropositive cases, see more alternatives to the CATT have been proposed. The test that has shown the highest potential as a new mass population-screening tool is the Latex/T. b. gambiense (Latex/T.b.g.). Like the CATT, this test detects antibodies against the parasite in patients’ blood through an agglutination reaction. The main advantage of Latex/T.b.g. is the detection of three different variant antigen types: LiTat 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 [41], while the CATT detects only LiTat 1.3. As a consequence, Latex/T.b.g. produces fewer false negative results, but a decreased sensitivity has been reported

in some foci characterized by a high expression of LiTat 1.3 [42]. However, the increased number of antigen targets did not solve the problem of false positives due to cross-reactions with other parasites. Contradictory results have been reported by different studies comparing Latex/T.b.g. and the CATT, or the standard CATT with improved versions of the same test (i.e. micro-CATT, CATT-EDTA) PJ34 HCl [43] [42], [44] and [45]. Recently, new antibody-based rapid assays, not requiring a cold chain, have been developed for the serological diagnosis of T. b. gambiense HAT: HAT SERO K-SeT, HAT Sero-Strip [121] and SD BIOLINE HAT (http://www.finddiagnostics.org/media/press/121206.html). Two of these promising tools – HAT SERO K-SeT and SD BIOLINE HAT, both developed as lateral flow assays – are currently under field evaluation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A diagnostic test based on the detection of parasite antigens, rather than antibodies developed by the host against the invading pathogens, would represent an efficient alternative and a substantial gain in terms of specificity.

, 2000) and in more coastal areas of Baltic Sea (Aleksandrov et a

, 2000) and in more coastal areas of Baltic Sea (Aleksandrov et al., 2009, Heerkloss and Schnese, 1999, Ojaveer et al., 1998 and Vourinen et al., 1998) show very similar standing stocks. Main deference seems to be relatively low biomass values observed in this investigation, which may be related to adopted weight to carbon conversion rate (Tanskanen, 1994) as well as differences in used sampling gear. In conclusion we consider the observed values as reliable and bringing valuable insight on dynamics of copepod population in Gulf of Gdańsk.

Acartia spp. and T. longicornis are major copepod species in Gulf of Gdańsk ( Siudziński, 1977, Szaniawska, 1977 and Wiktor and Żmijewska, 1985) as well as in the central Baltic ( Hansen et al., 2006). Although there are some major differences in our results and previous researches, Hansen et al. (2006) BMN 673 observed the highest biomass of these species in the spring, when in our research it is rather in the summer; this could indicate

some delay in the population development in the coastal zone in relation to the open sea. This seams accurate in relation to other costal Baltic regions ( Ojaveer et al., 1998 and Vourinen et al., 1998) where very similar biomass values Torin 1 ic50 were observed. Comparison of the both sampling seasons indicates the presence of similar trend but with a clear increase of biomass in 2007, which was most likely related to hydrological conditions ( Dzierzbicka-Głowacka et al., 2013). Similarly increased biomass of T. longicornis at deeper stations was most likely associated with thermic preferences of this species. This was even more evident in the case of Pseudocalanus sp. which prefers deep cold waters below thermocline, which explains the relatively low biomass of this species found during our investigation ( Renz and Hirche, 2006 and Renz et

al., 2007), as well as general decries of this species’ biomass observed by other authors ( Hansen et al., 2006 and Möllmann et al., 2000). As for the Acartia, Kang and Kang (2005) described the seasonal variations in biomass and production of one of the dominant copepods from the genus Acartia in Ilkwang Bay (Southeastern Coast of Korea). The biomass of this species varied between Temsirolimus cost 0.01 in winter and 4.55 mg C m−3 in summer while in our investigation total biomass of Acartia spp. was in the range of 0.02–3.85 mg C m−3. Studies conducted by Selinova and Moiseenko (2006) in a relatively shallow bay, similar to Gulf Gdańsk, showed much higher biomass concentration of investigated Acartia species (Acartia tumida) although overall pattern was very similar and observed differences were an effect of hydrological condition as well as species characteristic. During the study period Acartia spp. and T. longicornis were characterized by the highest production rates in comparison to Pseudocalanus sp. ( Table 2, Fig. 3).

Igualmente as novas modalidades da RM associam-se a taxas de sens

Igualmente as novas modalidades da RM associam-se a taxas de sensibilidade de 83-87% e especificidade de 81-100%11, emergindo como uma

alternativa à TC no estudo do pâncreas, embora mais dispendiosa. O valor da tomografia de emissão de positrões acoplada à tomografia computorizada (PET-TC) foi avaliado numa meta-análise recente, que reporta uma sensibilidade e especificidade diagnósticas de 81-90% e 83-93%, respetivamente12. Embora o seu valor no diagnóstico diferencial dos tumores pancreáticos seja reduzido, a PET-TC com contraste (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) apresenta uma acuidade superior a 80% na determinação da invasão local e de 94% na identificação de metástases distantes. Além da capacidade na avaliação da resposta ao tratamento, tem uma elevada sensibilidade no diagnóstico da recorrência pós-operatória, superior à TC 13, 14 and 15. Considerando as potencialidades emergentes da PET-TC, também o seu Protease Inhibitor Library screening valor no estadiamento N tem sido avaliado, revelando uma sensibilidade de 46-71% e uma Volasertib especificidade de 63-100% 16. Na prática clínica, a TC de última geração realizada segundo protocolo pancreático (multifásico) é o melhor método de imagem inicial em caso de suspeita de lesão pancreática

focal, por se encontrar amplamente disponível e por permitir diagnosticar, bem como estadiar e predizer a ressecabilidade da maioria das lesões. A RM é especialmente útil na deteção e caracterização de massas pancreáticas que não alteram o contorno pancreático e de pequenas metástases hepáticas, peritoneais e do epíploon17. A realização da EE deverá ser considerada em 2 circunstâncias

principais e consensuais: para confirmar a ausência de lesões pancreáticas segundo outros métodos de imagem (TC/RM), perante Thymidylate synthase forte suspeita clínica, ou clarificar imagens equívocas e inconclusivas por estes detetadas; e nas situações de irressecabilidade tumoral, para obtenção de um diagnóstico cito-histológico através de PAAF-EE. Em caso de lesões potencialmente ressecáveis (15-20%), a necessidade de diagnóstico definitivo pré-operatório continua em debate, sobretudo no caso das massas localizadas no corpo distal e cauda, pelo risco de disseminação peritoneal ou implantação tumoral na parede gástrica. Este risco é, no entanto, significativamente inferior ao da PAAF guiada por TC, estando apenas relatados alguns casos isolados (0,5-3%)1, 2 and 18. Quando utilizada no estadiamento loco-regional de lesões com indicação duvidosa para resseção (borderline ressectable), a EE pode detetar disseminação metastática previamente insuspeita em mais de 10% dos casos, evitando assim a cirurgia 19. Se o estudo inicial por TC ou RM evidenciar metástases à distância, a EE não está formalmente indicada e a punção lesional poderá ser realizada por via percutânea.

Weaners up to 8 weeks of age were fed a standard rodent breeding

Weaners up to 8 weeks of age were fed a standard rodent breeding diet and thereafter a standard rodent maintenance diet (Special Diet Services, South Witham,

UK). All procedures complied with the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and were reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of the Royal Veterinary College (London, UK). The magnitude of longitudinal mechanical strain at the tibial midshaft resulting from the loads applied to the tibia was established ex vivo in a sub-sample of male and female Lrp5HBM+ and Lrp5−/− mice and their respective WT littermate controls. In each mouse a single element strain gauge (EA-06-015DJ-120, Vishay Measurement Group, NC) Pexidartinib nmr was bonded with cyanoacrylate adhesive in longitudinal alignment to the medial aspect of the tibia

at 37% of its length from the proximal end. Previous studies have shown that this region corresponds to the site of greatest osteogenic response to similar loading [23]. Strains were measured across a range of peak compressive loads between 8 and 30 N ( Figs. 1 A–B). These peak loads were applied with a ramped trapezoidal waveform using the same servo-hydraulic machine (Dartec HC10, Zwick Roell, Herefordshire, UK) used for in vivo loading. When the Selleck mTOR inhibitor compressive force is applied to the tibia the bone bends in the medial-lateral direction resulting in tension on the medial surface and compression on the lateral surface [24]. From the data in Figs. 1 A–B, three magnitudes of peak load were selected for use in the loading experiment. These were chosen to engender measurable, graded osteogenic responses without causing damage to the bones or joints or the skin through which the loads were applied. Prior to the in vivo loading experiment, strain gauges Bumetanide were used to measure the longitudinal strains applied to the medial surface of the tibia (ex vivo) for each group of mice across a range of compressive forces ( Figs. 1A–B).

The strain engendered at each load (N) was significantly less in the male and female Lrp5HBM+ mice compared with their WTHBM− littermates (p < 0.01) and significantly greater in the male and female Lrp5−/− mice compared with their WT+/+ littermates (p < 0.01). Fig. 1C demonstrates that these strains strongly correlated with the cortical area measured at this site in each group of mice (r2 = 0.83, p < 0.01). Seventeen week old male and female Lrp5HBM+ or Lrp5−/− mice and their respective WT littermates were randomly assigned to one of three loading groups (n = 8/group). While under oxygen and halothane anaesthetic (Merial, Ireland) the right tibia from each mouse was axially loaded on 3 alternate days per week for 2 weeks for 40 cycles/day with a trapezoid waveform, with 14.9 second rest between cycles ( Fig. 1D). The left tibia was used as a non-loaded control to allow side-to-side comparisons for the effects of loading on (re)modelling.

Light microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen containing 2

Light microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen containing 24 glomeruli revealed no evidence of global sclerosis. Glomeruli showed collapse, but immune complex deposits were not seen. There was diffuse atrophy with tubular epithelial flattening and vacuolation (cyst formation) with interstitial fibrosis (Fig. 2A), and hypertrophy Trametinib in vitro of the juxtaglomerular apparatus was apparent (Fig. 2B).

Cancellous bone showed a marked decrease and was replaced by adipose tissue (Fig. 3A). There was also a reduction of cortical bone due to excessive porosity related to resorption at both the periosteal surface and the endosteal surface (Fig. 3B). Numerous osteoclasts were seen along the active resorption surfaces. The cancellous bone showed island formation due to a marked decrease of trabecular connections (Fig. 3C). Only cancellous bone adjacent to the cortical bone showed GSK1349572 mineralization between the first and second labelings, while no mineralization was seen between the second labeling and osteoid formation during the 28 days before biopsy (Fig. 3D). Empty lacunae that lacked osteocytes were noted prominently and diffusely in the cancellous bone and cortical bone, and bone area of lacunae filled with osteocytes was not localized [9] (Fig. 3E). Even in the cancellous bone adjacent to cortical bone (Table 1), the total bone volume (BV/TV) was reduced to 13.4% (normal:

18.8 to 27.6%) and the trabecular thickness was reduced to 85 μm (normal: 111 to 155 μm). The osteoid volume (OV/BV) was 3.51% (normal: 0.55 to 2.40%) and the osteoid thickness was 7.46 μm (normal: 8.3 to 12.4 μm), which did not fit the criteria for diagnosis of osteomalacia (OV/BV > 5% and osteoid thickness > 15 μm) [10]. Acid–base balance of our patient showed moderate chronic metabolic

acidosis with respiratory and metabolic compensations because of hyperventilation (hypocapnea), hypovolemia-related renin aldosterone system activation, and yet presented mild acidemia with low HCO3 levels. Active bone resorption might have been one of such compensations. Aurora Kinase Metabolic alkalosis related to use of diuretics or laxative abuse was not apparent. Severe chronic hypovolemia related to an absolute intake deficit of potassium and salt was apparent on admission. Because emaciation was considered to have contributed to her osteoporosis and renal dysfunction, promotion of calorie intake was tried in addition to administration of potassium derivatives. After two years, potassium derivative therapy was stopped because of normokalemia. After 5 years, her weight rose to 37 kg with a BMI of 15.0 kg/m2, although she remained nonmenstrual. The BMD of the lumbar spine increased to a T-score of 0.2 SD for the lateral view and − 2.3 SD for the anterior–posterior view, while BMD at the femoral neck increased to a T-score of − 2.3 SD. Serum albumin was 4.

2005) Acoustic methods are the most efficient for the mapping an

2005). Acoustic methods are the most efficient for the mapping and monitoring of large benthic areas (Anderson et al. 2008), and a low-cost alternative to direct sampling for mollusc reefs (DeAlteris, 1988, Wildish et al., 1998, Allen et al., 2005, Grizzle et al., 2005, Hutin et al., 2005, Lindenbaum et al., 2008, Snellen et al., 2008, JiangPing et al., 2009 and Raineault et al., 2011). However, no similar method has been developed for infaunal mollusc populations such as razor clams. Atlantic razor clams inhabit intertidal and subtidal sandy bottoms because oxygen can diffuse

though them, which is not the case with muddy bottoms. These solenids can dig down to depths of 60 cm. A habitat preference CAL 101 for sandy bottoms with finer granulometry has been observed, although this has been related to larval settlement

(Holme, 1954 and Darriba Couñago and Fernández Tajes, 2011), and thus does not affect their distribution in seeded beds. Furthermore, as razor clams are not sensitive to sand composition or grain shape, their presence has to be detected independently of the different acoustic responses caused by the different types of sediments. The acoustic response from the ocean bottom has two components: scattering from the rough water-sediment interface and volume backscattering. The former is caused by the impedance contrast between sediment and water, whereas the latter originates from sediment grains, shell debris and infaunal species. Both contributions are so mixed that it is difficult to characterise Raf inhibitor the sediment structure using this

information (Diaz et al., 2004 and Anderson et al., 2008). It is generally assumed that for high-frequency echosounders (i.e. f ≥ 100 kHz) the backscattered energy originates mostly in the water-sediment interface Wilson disease protein (because of the high attenuation of the compressional waves in the sediment). However, when shell hash is present in the volume, its scattering may dominate above the critical (grazing) angle for frequencies just above 60 kHz ( Lyons 2005). The acoustic signal returning to an echosounder contains not only power but also phase information from the wavefront. Measurement of phase differences at different parts of the transducer allows point-like scatterers to be located: the phase difference is related to the angle formed by the scatterer’s line of sight and the acoustic beam axis. This is actually the principle behind split-beam echosounders (Foote, 1986, Bodholt et al., 1989 and Simmonds and MacLennan, 2005). The first commercial split-beam echosounder was introduced in 1984 and took advantage of new electronic technologies and developments in acoustic signal processing (Foote et al. 1984). The transducer of a split-beam echosounder is usually divided into four quadrants, which allow the measurement of angles in the athwartship and alongship directions.

Increasing evidence points to an important role for ncRNAs in com

Increasing evidence points to an important role for ncRNAs in complex disorders. On the level of mutations, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play a mechanistic role in the effects of often ignored synonymous mutations [14]. A recent work has shown that a network of microRNAs may play Tenofovir ic50 a key role in the epithelial to mesenchymal transformation of ovarian cancers [82•]. The

importance of other ncRNA species have also been highlighted, such as the role of anti-sense RNAs on PTEN regulation [83], broad epigenetic effects of HOTAIR a long intergenic ncRNA (lincRNA) in breast cancer [12], and the role of PCAT-1, another lincRNA, on the progression of prostate cancer [13]. Biological network models still fall short of capturing many important aspects of biological systems. Cells exhibit dynamic responses

to environmental stimuli [84] and cells of different tissue types are characterized by distinct gene expression patterns [10 and 64•]. These properties are key determinants of phenotype but are not captured by the standard static network models that are prevalent in the field. Attempts to estimate the completeness and accuracy of existing protein interaction data suggest that 92% or more of binary human PPIs remain to be uncovered [3 and 85]. These estimates do not account for the possibility check details that distinct protein isoforms participate in different interactions. In addition, new molecular species are still being discovered and have not yet been incorporated into network models [7]. Constructing network models that accurately capture the molecular composition and interactions in specific cell types

and under distinct conditions will be essential for effectively modeling genotype–phenotype relationships. New experimental techniques Bay 11-7085 are rapidly emerging that will enable systematic screens of molecular interactions in mammalian cells. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques promise to enable systematic cell type-specific screens of the proteome and protein post-translational modifications [61]. Proteomics may also aid in discovery of as yet undiscovered protein coding genes [86]. Until now, the majority of GI screens have been performed in model organisms, especially yeast, by exhaustively knocking out pairs of genes and measuring the effects on colony size. Novel approaches using RNAi technologies are now enabling systematic mapping of GIs in mammalian cells [87, 88 and 89]. New strategies for network construction and visualization will also aid the search for disease causing genes and mutations. Reformulating interactomes as hierarchies can provide representations of biological information that are easier to interpret than the typical ‘hairball’ that results when thousands of interactions are simultaneously displayed [41 and 90••] (Figure 2).

No monoclonal spike is found on electrophoresis In some cases, p

No monoclonal spike is found on electrophoresis. In some cases, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria and infection-induced exacerbation of primary CAD will have to be ruled out as differential diagnoses. A few case reports have described chronic CA-mediated hemolysis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

In one of these publications, the presence of a clonal disorder was considered but could not be confirmed.66 These very rare cases of SLE-associated CAS should not be confused with primary CAD. Several authors have reported the development of CA-mediated hemolysis after allogenic stem cell transplantation. In some of these patients, the AIHA seemed related to the transplantation per se; in other cases it was associated with virus infection. [64] and [67] CAS has also been described during pregnancy in one single patient. 68 Until a decade ago, pharmacological therapy Sirolimus nmr for primary CAD was largely ineffective.[6] and [69] Partly based on this fact and partly because the severity

of the clinical features have not been appreciated, counseling has been regarded the mainstay of management.[3], [6] and [36] However, documentation of efficacy selleck is mainly anecdotal.[15] and [70] Still, in our clinical experience, staying warm seems to alleviate the symptoms and can probably prevent severe exacerbations of hemolytic anemia. In particular, the head, face and extremities should be protected against cold exposure.[36], [69] and [71] Some patients experience increased Hgb levels and alleviation of circulatory symptoms after relocating to warmer regions during the cold season, but severely symptomatic CAD does exist even in the subtropics. Infusion of cold liquids should be avoided. Surgery under hypothermia requires specific

precautions, e.g. preoperative plasmapheresis.[72] and [73] Erythrocyte transfusions can safely be given provided appropriate precautions are undertaken.[31] and [69] In contrast to the compatibility problems characteristic for warm-antibody AIHA, it is usually easy to find compatible donor erythrocytes, and screening tests for irregular blood Thiamet G group antibodies are most often negative. Antibody screening and, if required, compatibility tests should be performed at 37 °C. The patient and, in particular, the extremity chosen for infusion should be kept warm, and the use of an in-line blood warmer is recommended.72 Failure to observe required precautions has resulted in dismal or, very rarely, even fatal outcome.[72] and [74] Because complement proteins can exacerbate hemolysis, transfusion of blood products with a high plasma content should probably be avoided.39 In a population-based retrospective series on primary CAD we identified three splenectomised patients, none of whom had responded to the splenectomy.6 This observation is not surprising, since clearance of C3b-opsonized erythrocytes primarily occurs in the liver.

The last method is, by far, the most definitive method and avoids

The last method is, by far, the most definitive method and avoids making the reader check the

literature to obtain the structure(s). A combination of these methods is recommended. If substances have chiral centers, attention to which chiral forms are present is also required. If enzymes are used in a study they should be identified by EC numbers (Enzyme Nomenclature, 2013) and origin (e.g., species, tissue). The importance of reporting essential information and results was emphasized in the IUPAC PARP inhibitor Recommendations published in 1972 by Kolesov et al., 1972: “The highly interdependent nature of thermodynamic data imposes special obligations upon the author of papers reporting the results of thermodynamic investigations. He must give enough information about his experiment to allow readers to appraise the precision and accuracy of his results so that they may be properly consolidated within the existing body of data in the literature. Further, as accepted values of physical constants change or as new thermodynamic data for related systems become available, subsequent investigators often can recalculate results if it is clear that they are based on good experiments for which adequate information is presented, however old they may be. For these reasons, an author’s prime responsibility is to report his results in a form related as

closely to experimentally observed quantities selleckchem as is practical, with enough experimental details and auxiliary information to characterize the results adequately and to allow critical assessment of the accuracy claimed. For the convenience of the reader, the author may interpret and correlate the primary results as appropriate and present derived results in a form easy to utilize. However, such derived (or secondary) results never should be published at the cost of omitting the primary results on which they are based. Reference may be made to accessible earlier publications for some details”. It is appreciated

that a complete and unambiguous description may not be Meloxicam possible for complex biological systems. Nevertheless, it is essential that a “best” effort be made in such cases. Also, it is expected that as science advances, standards, nomenclature, and the symbols used will also evolve. However, a carefully done experiment will continue to be of lasting value provided that it has been properly documented. As mentioned above, it is critical to distinguish between the apparent equilibrium constant which pertains to overall biochemical reactions and the (standard) equilibrium constant which pertains to chemical reactions. The basis of this difference arises from the fact that, for overall biochemical reactions, thermodynamic quantities are, in general, functions of temperature T, pH, pX, and ionic strength I. Here, pX=−log10[X], where [X] is the concentration of a species X, typically an ion, that binds to one or more of the reactants.